Development of High Heat Flux Titanium-Water CCHPs

ICES-2020-323: Development of High Heat Flux Titanium-Water CCHPs

Andrew Lutz1, Calin Tarau2, Bill Anderson3 Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., Lancaster, PA, 17601

CCHPs are the current method used for cooling almost all spacecraft, including NASA, DoD, and commercial satellites. The maximum heat flux for current aluminum-ammonia CCHPs is roughly 10-15 W/cm2. This limit will affect more and more spacecraft electronics systems as electronics continue to increase in power and decrease in size. Traditionally, CCHPs have achieved limited heat flux due to dry-out at the critical heat flux in the evaporator. During previous development, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) identified a hybrid wick configuration that allows an increased critical heat flux, and therefore increased maximum heat flux of the aluminum-ammonia CCHP. Under a NASA Phase IIX SBIR program, ACT demonstrated a hybrid wick (with grooves), high heat flux, titanium-water heat pipe capable of maintaining less than 10 K temperature difference from condenser to evaporator at heat flux values up to 90 W/cm2. Aluminum and ammonia were replaced by titanium and water because of a potential testing opportunity inside the ISS. The experiment was performed with the heat pipe evaporator elevated above the condenser to simulate reduced heat pipe performance relative to zero gravity performance. The experimental performance of the hybrid wick heat pipe was compared to the performance of an otherwise identical baseline titanium-water heat pipe without the hybrid wick to enable high heat flux. The baseline heat pipe exceeded 10 K temperature difference at a heat flux less than 40 W/cm2.

Nomenclature

ACT = Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
CCHPs = constant conductance heat pipes
ΔT = temperature difference between evaporator and condenser
EDM = electromagnetic discharge machining

I. Introduction

Constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) are used for heat transport on almost all spacecraft, including NASA, United States Department of Defense, and commercial satellites. The maximum heat flux for current aluminum-ammonia CCHPs is about 10-15 W/cm2 1. When heat flux greater than 10-15 W/cm2 is applied to a conventional CCHP evaporator dry-out occurs because the critical heat flux is surpassed. In these conventional CCHPs a grooved wick is used to provide liquid flow from the condenser to the evaporator, but previous grooved wick designs are incapable of supplying enough liquid flow to the evaporator to avoid dry-out at heat flux values greater than 15 W/cm2. Future spacecraft and instruments developed for space missions will involve highly integrated electronics with increasing power density and heat dissipation requirements. For example, the current incident heat flux for laser diode applications is 5-10 W/cm2, but this value is expected to increase to 50 W/cm2. Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT), has been developing hybrid wick CCHPs that incorporate novel combinations of grooved wick and porous wick to achieve heat flux up to 90 W/cm2. In previous work, ACT fabricated and tested aluminum-ammonia CCHPs capable of heat flux up to 50 W/cm2 2.

CCHPs are two-phase heat transfer devices which utilize vaporization and condensation of a working fluid to transport heat. A heat pipe is a vacuum tight device consisting of a working fluid and a wick structure. The heat input vaporizes the liquid working fluid inside the wick in the evaporator section. The saturated vapor, carrying the latent heat of vaporization, flows towards the colder condenser section. In the condenser, the vapor condenses and transfers heat to the walls. The condensed liquid returns to the evaporator through the wick structure by capillary action. The phase change processes and two-phase flow circulation continue as long as the temperature difference between the evaporator and condenser are maintained. A CCHP is always on, transferring heat from the evaporator to the condenser. Grooved wicks are typically used in spacecraft CCHPs and VCHPs. These grooves have a very high permeability, allowing very long heat pipes for operation in micro-gravity, typically several meters long. One of their weaknesses is that they are suitable only for space, or for gravity aided sections of a heat pipe. The reason is that the same large pore size responsible for the high permeability results in low pumping capability due to low capillary pressure.

Figure 1. Diagram of Flanged Heat Pipe

This paper will discuss ACT’s current work involving the development of hybrid wick titanium-water CCHPs which are capable of at least 90 W/cm2 heat flux into a flanged evaporator. In a flanged heat pipe, heat is applied to a flat surface of the flange and conducts through the flange and heat pipe material into the heat pipe working fluid. Since the flange width is greater than the heat pipe width, as shown in Figure 1, the heat flux into the heat pipe can be high when greater magnitudes of heat need to be transported by the heat pipe. When the heat flux into the liquid working fluid, which fills the heat pipe grooves, increases beyond the critical heat flux for a grooved configuration, the vapor generated by boiling fluid prevents effective liquid return to the evaporator and the thermal resistance of the heat pipe increases dramatically. By integrating a porous wick in the evaporator of a CCHP, ACT has developed hybrid wick high-heat-flux CCHPs which increase the critical heat flux of the CCHP by enhancing liquid return to the heated area. In the work described here, one hybrid wick high-heat-flux titanium-water CCHP was fabricated and tested, and one conventional titanium-water CCHP was fabricated and tested to serve as a control sample for performance comparisons.

[1] R&D Engineer, R&D, 1046 New Holland Ave.
[2] Principal Engineer, R&D, 1046 New Holland Ave.
[3] Chief Engineer, R&D, 1046 New Holland Ave.

II. Description of the Prototypes

In this work, ACT fabricated one hybrid wick high-heat-flux titanium-water heat pipe and one conventional heat pipe to serve as a control sample. The two heat pipes were identical except for the hybrid wick architecture in the high-heat-flux CCHP. Figure 2 shows a rendering of the groove geometry and grooved section of the titanium-water CCHP prototypes fabricated for this experiment. The grooved section was produced by electromagnetic discharge machining (EDM) the grooves in a 0.625-inch outer diameter titanium rod. The two heat pipes are composed of a grooved section for the condenser and adiabatic section. In the conventional CCHP prototype the grooved wick continues through the length of the evaporator. In the hybrid wick CCHP the evaporator section includes a hybrid wick combination of grooves and porous material.

Figure 2. Rendering of the Groove Geometry and Grooved Section of the CCHP Prototypes

The heat flux limit in axial grooved heat pipe evaporators is typically 10-15 W/cm2. In order to increase the heat flux limit, the concept as shown in Figure 3 is to develop heat pipes with a hybrid wick that contains screen mesh or sintered powder evaporator wicks in the evaporator region, which can sustain high heat fluxes, where the axial grooves in the adiabatic and condenser sections can transfer large amounts of power over long distances due to their high wick permeability and associated low liquid pressure drop. Standard flanged CCHPs are manufactured from aluminum extrusions where the entire length of extrusion is flanged, but the flange is cut away in all locations where heat will not be applied so that weight is reduced. As with any conventional flanged CCHP, this hybrid wick technology can be implemented at the locations of evaporator flanges.

Figure 3. Hybrid Wick CCHPs: Axial Grooved Adiabatic and Condenser Sections with Screen Mesh or Sintered Powder in the Evaporator Section

The two CCHPs were fabricated with a copper flange where heat was supplied to the flat surface of the flange. The copper flange is bonded to the titanium heat pipe by a mechanically activated solder. Figure 4 shows a picture of the high-heat-flux CCHP. The overall length of the heat pipe was 12 inches, and the flange was offset from the end of the heat pipe. The ends of the CCHPs were welded using standard CCHP manufacturing practices and a fill tube and valve were left on the heat pipes to adjust charge if needed.

Figure 4. Picture of the High-Heat-Flux Titanium-Water CCHP

III. Description of the Experiment

The high-heat-flux CCHP and conventional CCHP control sample were tested under identical conditions to develop a comparison of the heat transfer capability of the two heat pipes relative to each other. Heat was applied to the flat surface of the evaporator flange via an aluminum heater block, with cartridge heaters installed, which was bolted to the flange. The footprint area on the flange where heat was applied was 6.45 cm2. A liquid-nitrogen-cooled aluminum block was clamped onto the condenser section of each CCHP to provide the heat sink. All experiments were conducted while holding the CCHP temperature at 80 °C as measured by a thermocouple on the wall of the adiabatic section. Liquid nitrogen flow rate was controlled to maintain a constant CCHP temperature. Figure 5 shows a diagram of the experimental setup with temperature control of the adiabatic section to hold a surface mounted thermocouple temperature at 80 °C by adjusting liquid nitrogen flow rate through the condenser block. The testing was conducted with the heat pipes in two oreientations: one oreientation where heat was applied to the downward facing flange (bottom heating), and the other where heat was applied to the flange while facing upward (top heating). The entire test apparatus was insulated to minimize heat leak between the apparatus and the ambient environment. A ceramic fiber insulation was wrapped around the entire heat pipe, heater block, and condenser block. For each test case, heat was applied to the evaporator flange and the system was allowed to equilibrate to steady state before changing the heater power to collect data for a subsequent test case.

Figure 5. Diagram of Experimental Setup Showing the Two Orientations of Heat Application Tested

Before thorough testing of the hybrid wick high-heat-flux CCHP, the conventional CCHP was tested and characterized at varying elevations against gravity and varying working fluid charge amounts. This characterization was conducted by applying heat to the evaporator flange while the conventional CCHP was at a fixed elevation. After reaching a steady state condition at each power level the heater power was increased in a stepwise manner until dry-out was observed, as indicated by drastically increased temperature difference between the evaporator and condenser. Figure 5 shows the heater power during the testing of the conventional CCHP at 0.25 inches against gravity with 6.0 mL water charge.

Figure 6. Heater Power during Conventional Heat Pipe Characterization at 0.25 inches Against Gravity with 6.0 mL Charge

Figure 6 shows an example of the raw data collected during the baseline testing of the conventional CCHP at 0.25 inches against gravity with 6.0 mL charge. The temperature difference between the evaporator and condenser (ΔT) is a measurement of the heat pipe temperature difference on the walls of the evaporator and condenser. For the conventional heat pipe, the ΔT surpassed 5 K at a heat flux greater than 32.5 W/cm2 (~200 W). Thermocouples were used to measure heat pipe wall temperatures along the length of the heat pipes, heater temperature, heater block temperature, flange temperature, and a reference to the ambient room temperature. As the heat applied to the CCHP increases, the ΔT increases, and the temporal variability of the ΔT increases, indicating partial or total dry-out.

Figure 7. Raw Data Collected during Conventional Heat Pipe Testing at 0.25 inches Against Gravity with 6.0 mL Charge

For each heater power level tested and allowed to reach steady state, an average value of each temperature measurement was determined for the final 5-10 min. time period of the steady state condition. Figure 7 shows data characterizing the performance of the conventional heat pipe with various working fluid charge amounts and various adverse elevations. The standard deviation of temperature measurements during the steady state time period used to determine average temperature values was calculated and is reported in the form of error bars. At an overcharged condition (7.8 mL) the heat pipe performance is unrealistic because a puddle is formed which reduces the required capillary rise height between the puddle liquid-vapor interface and the evaporator. At a reduced charge value (6.0 mL) where each groove would be mostly filled with liquid but no excess liquid could form a puddle, the heat pipe performance is limited at higher heater power levels. The conventional heat pipe performance was measured at varying elevations against gravity to verify that the capillary limit of the heat pipe would not be exceeded during testing of either heat pipe. Once the baseline heat pipe was characterized at 0.25 in. against gravity and shown to dry-out due to critical heat flux in the evaporator, this condition was chosen as the testing condition for the hybrid wick high-heat-flux CCHP.

Figure 8. Data Characterizing the Performance of the Conventional CCHP

IV. Experimental Results

The hybrid wick high-heat-flux titanium-water CCHP was tested at 0.25 inches against gravity in an identical manner to the testing of the conventional grooved titanium-water CCHP. Figure 8 shows the heater power during the hybrid wick CCHP testing. The improved performance of the hybrid wick heat pipe relative to the conventional heat pipe allows much greater heat loads without increasing the temperature of the heated components. During these experiments, heat loads up to 575 W were applied to the 6.45 cm2 heated footprint on the evaporator flange without the ΔT exceeding 10 K.

Figure 9. Heater Power during Hybrid Wick High-Heat-Flux CCHP Testing at 0.25 Inches Against Gravity

Figure 9 shows raw data measuring temperatures during the testing of the hybrid wick high-heat-flux heat pipe with heater power corresponding to Figure 8. The ΔT does not surpass 10 K up to the available power limit of the test apparatus (575 W, 89.4 W/cm2). Additionally, the temporal variability of temperature values is greatly reduced relative to the conventional CCHP.

Figure 10. Raw Data Collected during Hybrid Wick High-Heat-Flux Heat Pipe Testing at 0.25 inches Against Gravity

During the first set of tests conducted with both CCHPs, heat was applied to the flange in an orientation where the flange was facing downward, so heat was applied to the bottom of the heat pipe. A second set of tests was conducted where the heat pipes were rotated about their axes 180° such that heat was applied to the top of the heat pipes. This set of tests yielded similar results to the first set of tests, so there is no indication that the performance of either heat pipe is affected by this change.
Figure 10 shows the performance of the hybrid wick high-heat-flux titanium-water CCHP and the conventional titanium-water CCHP. The hybrid heat pipe can maintain a ΔT less than 10 K between the evaporator and condenser up to 89.4 W/cm2 whereas the ΔT of the baseline heat pipe would exceed 10 K at less than 40 W/cm2. The testing was performed by applying heat to the flange on the heat pipe evaporator in two orientations: top heating and bottom heating. This testing was performed in order to verify that the hybrid wick allowed liquid to bridge across the heat pipe height at a worst-case and best-case scenario with respect to gravity. For both orientations, the hybrid wick allowed the heat pipes to maintain a low ΔT at high heat flux.

Figure 11. Hybrid Wick High-Heat-Flux CCHP and Conventional CCHP Performance

V. Conclusion

CCHPs, which are a standard thermal management tool for spacecraft heat transport applications have traditionally been limited to heat flux values in the 10-15 W/cm2 range. This limitation is caused by the groove geometry that allows high permeability heat pipe wicks for spacecraft, but ACT has developed hybrid wick CCHPs that extend the critical heat flux limit in the evaporator by integrating porous wick architectures with the grooves in the evaporator. ACT fabricated one hybrid wick high-heat-flux titanium-water CCHP and one conventional titanium-water CCHP. The two heat pipes were tested under identical conditions and compared based on performance. The conventional CCHP ΔT exceeded 5 K at a heat flux less than 30 W/cm2 and exceeded 10 K at a heat flux of about 40 W/cm2. The hybrid wick high-heat-flux CCHP was able to achieve a heat flux greater than 70 W/cm2 before exceeding 5 K and was demonstrated to achieve 89 W/cm2 without exceeding a 10 K ΔT.

Acknowledgments

This project is funded by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center under a SBIR Phase IIX program (Contract NNX15CM03C). The technical monitor is Jeff Farmer. Special appreciation to Phil Texter for the prototype fabrication support.

References

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Thermal Enhancements for Separable Thermal Mechanical Interfaces

James Schmidt et al., AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Washington, D.C., June 13-17, 2016

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The Design of a Split Loop Thermosyphon Heat Exchanger for Use in HVAC Applications

Daniel Reist et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Hot Reservoir Stainless-Methanol Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Constant Evaporator Temperature in Varying Ambient Conditions

Jens Weyant et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Hybrid Variable and Constant Conductance Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Environments and High Heat Flux Space Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Self-Venting Arterial Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Applications

William G. Anderson et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Performance Life Testing of a Nanoscale Coating for Erosion and Corrosion Protection in Copper Microchannel Coolers

Nathan Van Velson and Matt Flannery, IEEE ITherm Conference, May 31-June 3, 2016, Las Vegas, NV

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Heat Pipes used as Heat Flux Transformers and for Remote Heat Rejection

Devin Pellicone and Jens Weyant, PCIM Europe 2016, Nuremberg, Germany, May 10-12, 2016

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Enhanced Filmwise Condensation with Thin Porous Coating

Ying Zheng, Chien-Hua Chen, Howard Pearlman, Richard Bonner, First Pacific Rim Thermal Engineering Conference, PRTEC, March 13-17, 2016, Hawaii's Big Island, USA.

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Optimized Alkali Metal Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

Calin Tarau, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS) 2016, Huntsville, AL, February 22-25, 2016.

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Status of the Development of Low Cost Radiator for Surface Fission Power II

Calin Tarau, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS) 2016, Huntsville, AL, February 22-25, 2016.

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Passivation and Stabilization of Aluminum Nanoparticles for Energetic Materials

Matthew Flannery, Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2015, Received 17 June 2015; Accepted 13 October 2015

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Modeling high-temperature diffusion of gases in micro and mesoporous amorphous carbon

Raghavan Ranganathan, Srujan Rokkam, Tapan Desai, Pawel Keblinski, Peter Cross, and Richard Burnes, The Journal of Chemical Physics 143, 084701 (2015).

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Optimized Heat Pipe Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

Carl L. Schwendeman, Calin Tarau, Nicholas A. Schifer, John Polak, and William G. Anderson, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Status of the Low-Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

Taylor Maxwell, Calin Tarau, William G. Anderson, Scott Garner, Matthew Wrosch, and Maxwell H. Briggs, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Water-Titanium Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Fission Power

Rebecca Hay and William G. Anderson, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Two-Phase Thermal Switch for Spacecraft Passive Thermal Management

Nathan Van Velson, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Multiple Loop Heat Pipe Radiator for Variable Heat Rejection in Future Spacecraft

Nathan Van Velson, Calin Tarau, Mike DeChristopher, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Hybrid Heat Pipes for Planetary Surface and High Heat Flux Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Experimental Investigation on the Thermal and Hydraulic Performance of Alumina–Water Nanofluids in Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plates

Ehsan Yakhshi-Tafti, Sanjida Tamanna and Howard Pearlman, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 137, July 1, 2015

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A “Swiss-Roll” Fuel Reformer: Experiments and Modeling

Chien-Hua Chen, Bradley Richard, Ying Zheng, Howard Pearlman, Shrey Trivedi, Srusti Koli, Andrew Lawson, and Paul Ronney, “A “Swiss-Roll” Fuel Reformer: Experiments and Modeling,” 9th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, May 17-20, 2015.

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Effect of Porous Coating on Condensation Heat Transfer

Ying Zheng, Chien-hua Chen, Howard Pearlman, Matt Flannery and Richard Bonner. 9th International Conference on Boiling and Condensation Heat Transfer, April 26-30, 2015, Boulder, Colorado.

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High Temperature Water-Titanium Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Fission Power

Rebecca Hay and William G. Anderson, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2015), Albuquerque, NM, February 23-26, 2015.

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Nanoscale Coating for Microchannel Cooler Protection in High Powered Laser Diodes

Tapan Desai, Matthew Flannery, Nathan Van Velson, and Philip Griffin, “Nanoscale Coating for Microchannel Cooler Protection in High Powered Laser Diodes,” Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM 2015), San Jose, CA, March 16-19, 2015.

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Fuel-Flexible Hybrid Solar Coal Gasification Reactor

M. Flannery et al., "Fuel-Flexible Hybrid Solar Coal Gasification Reactor," 2014 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, October 6 - 9, 2014.

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Heat Pipe Embedded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Enclosures for Avionics Thermal Management

Andrew Slippey, Michael C. Ellis, Bruce Conway, and Hyo Chang Yun. SAE 2014 Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference, Cincinnati, OH, September 23-25, 2014.

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Passive Thermal Management for Avionics in High Temperature Environments

Michael C. Ellis, William G. Anderson, and Jared R. Montgomery. SAE 2014 Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference, Cincinnati, OH, September 23-25, 2014.

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Passivation of Aluminum Nanoparticles by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energetic Nanomaterials

T. Desai et al., ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces Journal, 2014, 6 (10), pp. 7942–7947, DOI: 10.1021/am5012707

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Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes

Ababneh, Mohammed T., Shakti Chauhan, Pramod Chamarthy, and Frank M. Gerner. "Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes." Journal of Heat Transfer 136, no. 11 (2014): 112901.

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Launch Vehicle Avionics Passive Thermal Management

W. G. Anderson et al., “Launch Vehicle Avionics Passive Thermal Management,” 44th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2014), Tucson, AZ, July 13-17, 2014.

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Low Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

Taylor Maxwell et al, 12th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, OH, July 28-30, 2014.

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Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Subcooled and Saturated Refrigerants in Minichannel Heat Sinks

E. Yakhshi-Tafti et al., ASME 2014 4th Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting and 12th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, August 3-7, 2014, Chicago, IL.

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Thermal-Fluid Modeling for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes

M. T. Ababneh et al., published in the AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 270-278, April 2014.

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Thermoelectric Performance Model Development and Validation for a Selection and Design Tool

Thomas Nunnally, Devin Pellicone, Nathan Van Velson, James Schmidt, Tapan Desai, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014.

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High Heat Flux Heat Pipes Embedded in Metal Core Printed Circuit Boards for LED Thermal Management

Dan Pounds, Richard W. Bonner III, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014

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Enhancing Thermal Performance in Embedded Computing for Ruggedized Military and Avionics Applications

Darren Campo, Jens Weyant, Bryan Muzyka, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014.

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A Corrosion and Erosion Protection Coating for Complex Microchannel Coolers used in High Power Laser Diodes

Tapan G. Desai, Matthew Flannery, Angie Fan, Jens Weyant, Henry Eppich, Keith Lang, Richard Chin, and Aland Chin, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014

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The Thermal Conductivity of Clustered Nanocolloids

T. Desai et al., APL Materials, 2, 066102 (2014); doi: 10.1063/1.4880975. 21 May 2014;

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Diffuse interface modeling of void growth in irradiated materials. Mathematical, thermodynamic and atomistic perspectives

Anter El-Azab Karim Ahmed, Srujan Rokkam, Thomas Hochrainer, Published in Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science (COSSMS), Vol. 18, pg. 90-98, 2014.

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Effect of Crosslink Formation on Heat Conduction in Amorphous Polymers

Gota Kikugawa, Tapan G. Desai, et al., Journal of Applied Physics 114, published online July 16, 2013

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Cooling of Stirling Convertor and General Purpose Heat Source

Calin Tarau, et al.,11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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High Temperature Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power

Kara L. Walker, et al.,11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator for Lunar Fission Power Systems

William G. Anderson, et al., 11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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Ammonia and Propylene Loop Heat Pipes with Thermal Control Valves – Thermal/Vacuum and Freeze/Thaw Testing

Kara Walker, et al., 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2013), Vail, CO, July 14-18, 2013.

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Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Life Tests and Analyses

W. G. Anderson, et al., 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2013), Vail, CO, July 14-18, 2013

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Correlation for dropwise condensation heat transfer: Water, organic fluids, and inclination

Richard W. Bonner III, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 61, June 2013, Pages 245-253

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A Non-Catalytic Fuel-Flexible Reformer

Chien-Hua Chen, et al., 8th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, hosted by the University of Utah, May 19-22, 2013

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Planar vapor chamber with hybrid evaporator wicks for the thermal management of high-heat-flux and high-power optoelectronic devices

P. Dussinger et al., International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 60, pp. 163–169, May 2013.

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Variable Conductance Thermal Management System for Balloon Payloads

Calin Tarau and William G. Anderson, 20th AIAA Lighter-Than-Air Systems Technology Conference, Daytona Beach, FL, March, 25-28, 2013

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Preliminary First Principle Based Electro-thermal Coupled Solver for Silicon Carbide Power Devices

Angie Fan et al., 29th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium, San Jose, CA, March 17-21, 2013

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Trade Study for Lunar Fission Power Systems

William G. Anderson, Bryan J. Muzyka, and John R. Hartenstine, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems – Experimental Results

Carl Schwendeman, Calin Tarau, William G. Anderson, and Peggy A. Cornell, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Alkali Metal Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power

Kara L. Walker, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Syngas Production by Thermochemical Conversion of CO2 and H2O Using a High-Temperature Heat Pipe Based Reactor

H. Pearlman and Chien-Hua Chen, SPIE Solar Hydrogen and Nanotechnology VII, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8469 San Diego, CA, August 12-14, 2012.

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Diode Heat Pipes for Venus Landers

Calin Tarau et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2012.

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Long-Lived Venus Lander Thermal Management System Design

Rebecca Hay et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Atlanta, GA, July 30 July-August 1, 2012.

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Variable Thermal Links

W. G. Anderson et al., 42nd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2012), San Diego, CA, July 15-19, 2012.

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Applications

W. G. Anderson et al., 16th International Heat Pipe Conference, Lyon, France, May 20-24, 2012.

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The Effect of Device Level Modeling on System-Level Thermal Predictions

Jens Weyant, et al., ITherm, San Diego, CA, May 30, 2012,

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Integration of a Phase Change Material for Junction-Level Cooling in GaN Devices

Daniel Piedra, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2012

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An Innovative Passive Cooling Method for High Performance Light-emitting Diodes

Angie Fan, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2012

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Ultra High Temperature Isothermal Furnace Liners (IFLs) For Copper Freeze Point Cells

Peter Dussinger and John Tavener, 9th International Temperature Symposium, Anaheim, CA, March 2012

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High Heat Flux, High Power, Low Resistance, Low CTE Two-Phase Thermal Ground Planes for Direct Die Attach Applications

Peter Dussinger, et al., GOMACTech 2012, Las Vegas, NV, March 2012

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Passive Control of a Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Lunar Lander Application

K. L. Walker et al., 42nd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2012), San Diego, CA, July 15-19, 2012.

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A Computational Model of a Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger in a Vapor Compression System with a Large Pulsed Heat Load

G. Troszak and X. Tang, Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Puerto Rico, July 8-12, 2012.

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2-D Simulation of Hot Electron-Phonon Interactions in a Submicron Gallium Nitride Device Using Hydrodynamic Transport Approach

Angie Fan et al., ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Puerto Rico, USA , July 8-12, 2012

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Novel Junction Level Cooling in Pulsed GaN Devices

Tapan G. Desai, et al., ITherm, San Diego, CA, May 30, 2012,

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Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Life Tests

W. G. Anderson, et al., 16th International Heat Pipe Conference, Lyon, France, May 20-24, 2012.

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Passivation Coatings for Micro-channel Coolers

Richard W. Bonner III, Jens Weyant, Evan Fleming, Kevin Lu, Daniel Reist, APEC 2012, Orlando FL, February 1, 2012

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Regolith Oxygen Production with Multiple Reactors

John Hartenstine, et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2011

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Thermal Management System for Long-Lived Venus Landers

Calin Tarau, et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2011

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes

William Anderson, et al., 41st International Conference on Environmental Systems, Portland, OR, July 17-21, 2011

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for a Lunar Variable Thermal Link

Chris Peters, et al., 41st International Conference on Environmental Systems, Portland, OR, July 17-21, 2011

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Two-Phase Heat Sinks with Microporous Coating

T. Semenic and S. M. You, 9th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, Edmonton, CA, June 19-22, 2011

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Die Level Thermal Storage for Improved Cooling of Pulsed Devices

Richard Bonner III, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA., March 2011

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A 2-D Numerical Study of Microscale Phase Change Material Thermal Storage for GaN Transistor Thermal Management

Xudong Tang, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2011

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Dynamic Response of Phenolic Resin and Its Carbon-nanotube Composites to Shock Wave Loading

Arman, et. al., Journal of Applied Physics, 109, 013503 (2011)

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Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Variable Thermal Conductance Link of Lunar Landers and Rovers

Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Variable Thermal Conductance Link of Lunar Landers and Rovers, J. R. Hartenstine et al., 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, FL, January 4-7, 2011.

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Electronics Cooling Using High Temperature Loop Heat Pipes with Multiple Condensers

William G. Anderson, et al., SAE Power Systems Conference, Ft. Worth, TX, November 2010

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Development of Heat Pipe Loop Technology for Military Vehicle Electronics Cooling

Xudong Tang et al., NDIA Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering and Technology Symposium, Dearborn, Michigan, August 2010

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Dropwise Condensation Life Testing of Self Assembled Monolayers

Richard Bonner III, IHTC14, Washington, DC, August 2010

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Heat and Mass Transfer in a Permeable Fabric system Under Hot Air Jet Impingement,

Sangsoo Lee et. al., International Heat Transfer Conference (IHTC14), Washington, DC, August, 2010

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Variable Thermal Conductance Link for Lunar Landers and Rovers

William G Anderson et. al., IECEC, Nashville, Tennessee, July, 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems – Design and Experimental Results

Calin Tarau and William G Anderson, IECEC, Nashville, Tennessee, July, 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe with Carbon-Carbon Radiator for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau and William G. Anderson, 15th International Heat Pipe Conference, Clemson, SC, April 2010

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Low-Temperature, Dual Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith

Kara Walker et al., 15th International Heat Pipe Conference, Clemson, South Carolina, April, 2010

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes

William G. Anderson, John R. Hartenstine, David B. Sarraf, and Calin Tarau, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., Pennsylvania, 15th International Heat Pipe Conference (15th IHPC) Clemson, USA, April 25-30, 2010.

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Dropwise Condensation in Vapor Chambers

Richard Bonner, 26th IEEE Semi-Therm Symposium, Santa Clara, California, February 2010

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Sodium VCHP with Carbon-Carbon Radiator for Radioisotope Stirling Systems,

Calin Tarau, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Laurel, Maryland, February 2010

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Advanced VCS Evaporators for Lunar Lander and Lunar Habitat Thermal Control Applications

Tadej Semenic, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Laurel, Maryland, February 2010

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Modeling Initial Stage of Phenolic Pyrolysis: Graphitic Precursor Formation and Interfacial Effects

Tapan Desai, et al., Polymer, 52, 2010

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Slip Behavior at Ionic Solid-fluid Interfaces

Tapan Desai, NDIA Chemical Physics Letters, 501, 2010, 93-97

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Roles of Atomic Restructuring in Interfacial Phonon Transport

Seungha Shin et. al., Physical Review B, 82, 081302 (2010)

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Anisotropic Shock Response of Columnar Nanocrystalline Cu

Sheng-Nian Luo et. al., Journal of Applied Physics , 107, 123507 (2010)

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Heat Pipe Embedded Alsic Plates for High Conductivity-Low CTE Heat Spreaders

J. Weyant, ITHERM 2010, Las Vegas NV,

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith

John R. Hartenstine, et al., AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, January 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., 7th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Denver Colorado, August 2009

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Loop Heat Pipe Design, Manufacturing and Testing – an Industrial Perspective

William Anderson, et al., ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Dropwise Condensation on Surfaces with Graded Hydrophobicity

Richard Bonner, ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Evaporators for High Temperature Lift Vapor Compression Loop for Space Applications

Tadej Semenic and Xudong Tang, ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiators for Lunar and Martian Environments

William Anderson, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production of Lunar Regolith

John Hartenstine, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Performance after Extended Periods of Freezing

Michael Ellis and William Anderson, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Loop Heat Pipe for TacSat-4

Peter Dussinger, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Advanced Thermal Management Technologies for High Power Automotive Equipment

Jon Zuo, et al., National Defense Industrial Association Ground Vehicle Power and Energy Workshop, Troy, Michigan, November 2008

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Vibration and Shock Tolerant Capillary Two-Phase Loop Technology for Vehicle Thermal Control

Xudong Tang and Chanwoo Park, 2008 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Jacksonville, Florida, August 2008

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NaK Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., 6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, Ohio, July 2008

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Heat Pipe Cooling of Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems

William Anderson, et al., 6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, Ohio, July 2008

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Startup Characteristics and Gravity Effects on a Medium/High-Lift Heat Pump Using Advanced Hybrid Loop Technology

Eric Sunada, et al., 38th SAE International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, California, June 2008

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High Temperature and High Heat Flux Thermal Management for Electronics

David Sarraf and William Anderson, IMAPS International Conference on High Temperature Electronics Conference (HiTEC 2008), Albuquerque, New Mexico, May 2008

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Heat Pipe Cooling of Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

William Anderson, et al., 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, San Diego, California, May 2008

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Local Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements of Flat Angles Sprays Using Thermal Test Vehicle

Richard Bonner, et al., 24th IEEE Semi-Therm Symposium, San Jose, California, March 2008

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe for Precise Temperature Control

David Sarraf, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Power Systems

John Hartenstine, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

William Anderson and Calin Tarau, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Vapor Compression Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology for Lunar Surface Applications

Chanwoo Park and Eric Sunada, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Experimental Study of Oscillating Flow Heat Transfer

Angie Fan, et al., Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer International Conference, Tainan, Taiwan, January 2008

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Metal Hydride Heat Storage Technology for Directed Energy Weapon Systems

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exhibition, Seattle, Washington, November 2007

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Electronics Thermal Management Using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2007 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Loop Thermosyphon Design for Cooling of Large Area, High Heat Flux Sources

John Hartenstine, et al., InterPACK 2007, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Heat Pipes for High Temperature Thermal Management

David Sarraf and William Anderson, InterPACK 2007, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes

William Anderson, 2007 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, St. Louis, MO, June 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests – Experiments

William Anderson, et al., 2007 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, St. Louis, MO, June 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests – Theory

Calin Tarau, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, NM, February 11 - 15, 2007.

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Spacecraft Thermal Management Using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, NM, February 11 - 15, 2007.

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Advanced Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for High Performance Thermal Management

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger with Two Levels of Isolation for Environmental Control of Manned Spacecraft Crew Compartment

David Sarraf, 37th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Norfolk, VA, July 17-20, 2006.

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Passive Thermal Management for a Fuel Cell Reforming Process

David Sarraf, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High Temperature Water-Titanium Heat Pipe Radiator

William Anderson, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High Temperature Titanium-Water and Monel-Water Heat Pipes

William Anderson, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High-Temperature Water Heat Pipes

David Sarraf and William Anderson, IMAPS International Conference on High Temperature Electronics, Santa Fe, NM, May 15 - 18, 2006

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High Performance Heat Storage and Dissipation Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE), Orlando, FL, November 5 - 11, 2005.

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Design and Testing of Titanium/Cesium and Titanium/Potassium Heat Pipes

Peter Dussinger, et al., 2005 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Francisco, CA, August 2005.

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High Temperature Lightweight Heat Pipe Panel Technology Development

Ted Stern and William Anderson, Space Nuclear Conference 2005, San Diego, CA, June 2005.

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Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Trade Study for the 300-550K Temperature Range

William Anderson and Walter Bienert, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2005

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Hybrid Loop Thermal Bus Technology for Vehicle Thermal Management

Chanwoo Park, et al., 24th Army Science Conference, Orlando, FL, November 29 - December 2, 2004

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