Advanced Two-Phase Cooling System for Modular Power Electronics

Advanced Two-Phase Cooling System for Modular Power Electronics

Kuan-Lin Lee[1], Sai Kiran Hota[2], Andrew Lutz[3] and Srujan Rokkam[4]

Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc, Lancaster, PA, 17601

Developing standardized electronics cooling system components is important to reduce system capital costs and reduce the operations and maintenance complexities. As such, it is important to develop components that can handle high heat loads with less temperature drop between the electronics and the heat sink. Two-phase thermal heat spreaders provide an excellent alternative to conventional conduction-based heat spreaders. Under a Small Business Innovation Research program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a pulsating heat pipe (PHP)-based heat spreader for advanced modular power electronics and compared it with ACT’s high conductivity (HiK) plate. The features of the test components are in accordance with modular electronics standards for space power systems (MESSPS) and applicable across various space missions. Test results showed, that both heat spreaders (HiK™ plate and PHP) can reduce the thermal resistance by half compared to an aluminum plate. The unique feature of the PHP is that the capillary channels extend onto the sharp stepped interface, which is not feasible with HiK™ plate. This improves the thermal conductance across the stepped plane between the heat spreader and the card retainer. ACT’s Isothermal Card Edge (ICE-Lok®) was used as the card retainer. Both PHP and Hi-K plates are able to operate against gravity orientation. Also, PHP was found to be up to 10.4% lighter than the conventional card by 16 grams.

Nomenclature

Nomenclature

Abbreviations

ACT                =    Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.

AMPS             =    Advanced Modular Power systems

HiK™ plate =    High conductivity card

ICE-Lok®    =    Isothermal Card Edge

PHP                 =    Pulsating Heat Pipe

SBIR               =    Small Business Innovation Program

MESSPS         =    Modular Electronics Standard for Space Power Systems

I.     Introduction

Standardizing electronics cooling systems offers many advantages such as reducing the costs of component development and unique spare parts, easily repairing and replacing parts etc. The Advanced Exploration System Modular Power System (AMPS) project aims to construct future power control architecture of spacecraft with standardized, modularized, and interchangeable components, including electronics and auxiliary thermal management components. As power electronics evolve, the standardized cooling system must handle high heat flux. Conventional cooling system with conduction only aluminum plate heat spreader is limited by the material thermal conductivity. A recent investigation by Colozza and Gardner showed an electronics module with the conventional heat spreader can only deliver up to 16 W per card at a maximum allowable operating temperature of 44 °C [i]. The thermal resistance was found to be around 1.5 °C/W, where the heat spreader thermal resistance contributed to about half the total thermal resistance. Replacing the conventional heat spreader with advanced two-phase heat spreaders can significantly improve the heat carrying capability by reducing the thermal resistance of the system.

Under SBIR Phase I Program for NASA, two different two-phase heat spreaders: ACT’s HiK™ plate and pulsating heat pipe (PHP) were developed and tested as superior alternatives to a conduction-only aluminum plate for electronics (3U card) cooling. ACT’s HiK™ plate is essentially copper-water heat pipes embedded into an aluminum plate [ii]. HiK™ plate can have an effective thermal conductivity of 600 W/m-K to 1200 W/m-K, which is 3 to 6 times more than an aluminum plate. HiK™ plate can also handle up to a heat flux of 60-70 W/cm2 [iii]. Pulsating heat pipe (PHP) on the other hand, uses oscillation/ pulsation of the saturated working fluid within a serpentine capillary to transfer heat[iv]. The heat transport capability is limited by the working fluid and geometry but could be well in excess of 10 W/cm2 up to 50 W/cm2 [v],[vi]. In addition to the heat spreader, it was identified that Wedge-Lok is the standard solution to mechanically interface the electronic card enclosure with the chassis of the module. ACT’s ICE-Lok® can replace COTS Wedge-Lok as it provides an additional heat transfer path which in turn reduces the thermal resistance across the interface joint by more than 30% [vii].

This manuscript describes the development, testing, and performance comparison of two-phase heat spreader components and conduction-only aluminum plate heat spreader (baseline) for 3U card electronics cooling system. During the testing, ACT’s ICE-Lok® was used as the card retainer instead of COTS Wedge-Lok. The geometrical features of the fabricated components are in accordance with modular electronics standards for space power systems (MESSPS). The developed system components can directly benefit various missions such as Gateway-Artemis, Lunar and Mars Habitats, Solar Electric Propulsions, Electrified Aircraft Propulsions, and future ISS missions like Orbiting Habitats, etc.

[1] Lead Engineer, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., 1046 New Holland Ave., Lancaster, PA 17601

[2] R&D Engineer II, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., 1046 New Holland Ave., Lancaster, PA 17601

[3] R&D Engineer III, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., 1046 New Holland Ave., Lancaster, PA 17601

[4] R&D Manager Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., 1046 New Holland Ave., Lancaster, PA 17601

 

Figure 1. Advanced cooling system components for modular power electronics

Figure 1. Advanced cooling system components for modular power electronics

Under an SBIR program, ACT developed an advanced cooling system for electronics card (3U size). Two-phase-based heat spreaders based on two different heat pipe technologies, ACT’s HiK™ plate and PHP were tested as part of the proposed cooling system for the modular power electronics. ACT’s ICE-Lok® was used as an enhanced isothermal card edge retainer as it provides an additional heat transfer path over COTS Wedge-Lok. The schematic of the system is shown in Figure 1. The heat transfer path from the electronics card source to the heat sink (coolant) is represented by red arrows.

A mock cooling system was constructed to test the proposed cooling system according to modular electronics standard for space power systems (MESSPS)[i]. The geometric details of the electronics cooling system are shown in Figure 2. The card is enclosed by the heat spreader, which provides primary heat transfer path, and with a backplane on the backside of the card.  The backplane was a standard 1/8” (3.2 mm) thick solid aluminum plate. The heat spreader and the backplane interface with the chassis rails (or teeth) by means of an ICE-Lok®. A cold plate (aluminum plate with embedded copper tubes) was attached on the top and the bottom side of the chassis to provide a uniform heat sink temperature. Water at standard 22 °C was used as the heat transfer fluid. A 2-inch x 2-inch polyimide film heater was used to simulate heat generation in the electronics cards.

I.     Design and Development of HiK™ plate and PHP

Based on the chosen film heater configuration, a HiK™ plate with heat pipes was designed and fabricated according to ACT’s standard fabrication procedure. There were six copper water heat pipes symmetrically embedded onto the aluminum base plate.

Figure 2. Geometric details of the modular power electronics cooling system (dimensions in inches)

Figure 2. Geometric details of the modular power electronics cooling system (dimensions in inches)

The schematic of the HiK™ plate heat spreader is shown in Figure 3 (a). The heat pipe condensers only extend until the edge of the heat source plane as it is difficult to incorporate sharp turns onto the stepped plane. The PHP design on the other hand, allowed for incorporating working fluid channels onto the stepped plane. The schematic of the PHP is shown in Figure 3 (b). A total of 24 PHP channels of size 1/16” (1.6 mm) were symmetrically spread out along the heat spreader. A common fluid charging port was provided to charge the PHP working fluid. ethanol. Propylene was selected as the working fluid based on the merit number calculation [i], size applicability based on Bond number and ease of handling.

Figure 3. Schematic of (a) HiK™ plate and (b) PHP for electronics cooling

Figure 3. Schematic of (a) HiK™ plate and (b) PHP for electronics cooling

A.   Heat transfer operating limit of the proposed heat spreaders

Before fabricating the two-phase heat spreaders, heat transfer operating limits were calculated for both HiK™ plate (from in-house codes) and Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) [ii] to assess the feasibility of using the proposed concept for modular electronics cooling.

The operating limits for one-half of one heat pipe were determined from established in-house codes, and the results are shown in Figure 4 (a). The maximum HiK™ plate heat transfer capability is limited by the capillary limit, which has an increasing trend with operating temperature. At 40 °C operating temperature, the heat transfer capability of the overall HiK™ plate is 180 W. On the other hand, the swept length limit imposes a maximum heat transfer limit on the operation of the PHP. The swept length limit decreases with increasing operating temperature. Propylene was chosen as the working fluid, as it has a Bond number limit at over 54 °C, while, the same for R134a, is only 36 °C. At 40 °C operating temperature, Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) heat transport limit is 80 W.

Figure 4. Heat transfer operating limits of (a) HiK™ plate and (b) PHP

Figure 4. Heat transfer operating limits of (a) HiK™ plate and (b) PHP

A.   Fabrication of the heat spreaders

Along with the proposed heat spreader solutions, a standard aluminum base plate of thickness 0.1” was fabricated by conventional methods. The solid aluminum plate weighed 153 grams. The HiK™ plate was fabricated as per ACT’s standardized fabrication procedure. The heat pipe and the base plate production can start simultaneously at tandem. The heat pipes are soldered onto the base plate slots and standard surface treatment was applied. The prototype HiK™ plate for the testing in the SBIR program is shown in Figure 5. In the post-processing step, slots for securing the backplane and the ICE-Lok® were provided on the stepped interfaces. The tentative heater location for simulating heat generation on the HiK™ plate is represented by the red square region at the center of the heat spreader. The HiK™ plate is now ready to be tested as the heat spreader. The total mass of the HiK™ plate was found to be 173 grams, which was 13% higher than a solid aluminum plate. Note that the mass of HiK™ can be further optimized by removing excessive base material. The optimized mass should be comparable to an aluminum plate.

Figure 5. HiK™ plate for electronics card cooling

Figure 5. HiK™ plate for electronics card cooling

Figure 6. 3D printed PHP for electronics card cooling

Figure 6. 3D printed PHP for electronics card cooling

A PHP, on the other hand, was 3D printed due to the complexity of incorporating working fluid channels. The base material was standard aluminum alloy for additive manufacturing (AlSi10Mg). Figure 6 shows the fabricated PHP. Post fabrication, a number of post-production steps were carried to charge and test the PHP as a heat spreader including metal power removal, x-ray inspection, de-powdering port closing, fill tube welding.  A helium leak check was performed to ensure that the PHP was leak tight. The PHP was then charged with working fluid up to 50% of the available channel volume. The PHP is now ready to be tested as the heat spreader. It was observed that the PHP weighed 137 grams, and was about 10.4% lighter than the aluminum standard base plate.

I.     IR Characterization of a Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) Prototype

Figure 7. Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) prototype for IR characterization testing

Figure 7. Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) prototype for IR characterization testing

Before thermal performance testing, another prototype Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) with separate channels was first charged with acetone and placed under an IR camera to characterize and visualize PHP’s operating mechanism. A PHP prototype containing two separate channels as shown in Figure 7. was constructed for IR characterization. A 2” by 2” film heater was attached to the center of the test piece and the top surface was cooled by fans. For this characterization testing, only the left half PHP channel was filled with acetone up to 60% of volume. The right half was kept empty and used as an aluminum conduction-only test piece. This allows for a direct comparison of heat transfer performance between the PHP and conduction plate within the same test piece.

Figure 8. Left - Test piece temperature before Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) start-up; Right - Test piece temperatures when Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) is operating

Figure 8. Left – Test piece temperature before Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) start-up; Right – Test piece temperatures when Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) is operating

The IR camera test results are shown in Figure 8. The figure of the left shows the increasing test piece temperature before the PHP start-up. At this time, the temperature is uniformly distributed throughout the entire test piece. Once, the PHP starts pulsating, the center temperature drops immediately from above 76 °C to below 70 °C. The temperature measurements at different locations of the test piece is shown above. Performance calculation showed that the conductance of the PHP was ~3.7 times higher than the conduction-only plate. The video file for the test characterization can be accessed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=08AnO60Cw7k&feature=youtu.be

I.     Testing of heat spreaders for electronics cooling

Figure 9. Experimental test setup for testing heat spreaders

Figure 9. Experimental test setup for testing heat spreaders

The three heat spreaders: the aluminum plate (baseline), HiK™ plate, and the Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) were tested with the electronics chassis cooling setup shown in Figure 9. The setup consisted of two cold plate channels at the top and the bottom of the electronics system chassis for uniform heat distribution. The 2-inch x 2-inch film heater was attached to the underside of the heat spreader. The coolant (water) temperature was set at 22 °C with a total flow rate of 0.9 gallons per minute. The heat transfer from the heat spreader to the sink was through the chassis by means of an ICE-Lok®. Steady-state temperature measurements of the components were recorded at varying heater levels until the maximum temperature of 44 °C according to the MESSPS standards. In the case of the Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP), propylene at 50% charge ratio (volume basis) was charged into the channels. During the testing, the system was insulated to mitigate heat losses to the environment.

 

Figure 10. Cooling system component temperatures with aluminum plate heat spreader

Figure 10. Cooling system component temperatures with aluminum plate heat spreader

The experiments were first performed with aluminum plate as the baseline. The temperature measurements of the different components are shown in Figure 10. The dotted red line is the maximum allowable temperature of 44 °C. The steady temperature difference between the center to the edge of the heat spreader was proportional to the heat applied. It was observed that the aluminum plate can transport up to 21.2 W heat (flux: 0.8 W/cm2) with an overall system thermal resistance of 2 °C/W. The heat spreader thermal resistance was 0.75 °C/W.

Figure 11. Cooling system component temperatures with (a) HiK™ plate and (b) PHP as heat spreader

Figure 11. Cooling system component temperatures with (a) HiK™ plate and (b) PHP as heat spreader

Figure 12. Instantaneous temperature profile of electronics cooling system

Figure 12. Instantaneous temperature profile of electronics cooling system

Figure 11 shows cooling system component temperatures with HiK™ plate and PHP as heat spreaders in the cooling system. In the case of HiK™ plate as heat spreader, the maximum recorded temperature at 42.4 W heat input was 43 °C. While, the temperature drop between the center and the edge was small, the temperature drop from the heat spreader edge to the chassis rail was large. On the other hand, with PHP as the heat spreader, the mean oscillation temperature was closer to 44 °C at around 43.4 W. The temperature drop between the center to the edge was higher than the HiK™ plate. However, the temperature drop between the edge and the chassis was smaller than the HiK™ plate. In this test, no noticeable flow-induced vibration of PHP was observed. Potential reasons for unnoticeable vibration could be (1) the mass ratio between the fluid and solid is small enough so that the oscillation of slugs in the mini-channels will not induce overall device vibration (2) the channel are symmetrically distributed in the plate[i].

The cooling system with all three heat spreaders was compared with instantaneous temperature plots at 21 W of heat input at the film heater. The results are shown in Figure 12. The aluminum plate heat spreader had the steepest temperature gradient from the center to edge at about 7.8 °C. This is the component thermal resistance which is limited by the thermal conductivity of the material. The component thermal resistance was the highest of the three heat spreaders at 0.75 °C/W. On the other hand, the temperature drop from the center to the edge of the HiK™ plate was the lowest at only 0.5 °C, while for PHP, it was around 2.1 °C. The isothermal profile comparison from the heat spreader center to the edge is shown in Figure 13.

Figure 13. Heat spreader temperature distribution during testing

Figure 13. Heat spreader temperature distribution during testing

However, it is interesting to note that the edge to the chassis rail temperature drop for the PHP was the lowest of all the three heat spreaders. For both aluminum plate and the HiK™ plate, the temperature drop was 8.7 °C and 6.6 °C, respectively, while, for the PHP, it was only 4.2 °C.

Figure 14. Gravity independence test of (a) HiK™ plate; and (b) PHP

Figure 14. Gravity independence test of (a) HiK™ plate; and (b) PHP

A set of tests with horizontal and vertical orientation was performed to determine the influence of gravity on the performance of the HiK™ plate cooling system and the PHP cooling system. The test results are shown in Figure 14 at about 40 W heater power. At the start of the test, the HiK™ plate was first placed in the usual vertical configuration. The temperature drop from the center to the plane edge (same plane) was 0.4 °C. Then, the system was placed in a horizontal configuration. No change in temperature drop from the center to the edge was observed. After this, the system was returned to vertical orientation. HiK™ plate heat spreading performance was found to be independent of gravity. PHP heat spreader system, on the other hand, was first tested in a horizontal configuration. The temperature drop from the center to the edge was 4.7 °C. Then the system was switched to a vertical orientation, in which case, the temperature drop mildly changed to 4.3 °C. The system then was returned to horizontal orientation. The temperature drop from the center to the edge was again about 4.9 °C. The change in PHP component thermal resistance was negligible, so it can be surmised that the PHP performance was also unaffected by gravity. The performance of both, the HiK™ plate and PHP heat spreader cooling system is thus independent of gravity.

 I.     Finite Element Analysis

FEA was performed to analyze the heat transfer paths of the three heat spreaders from the center to the card edges, where ICE-Lok® interfaces with a chassis. The results are shown in Figure 15. In this FEA, the applied heater power was 21 W at the center of the heat spreaders, and the convective heat transfer coefficient of 500 W/m2-K at 20 °C reference temperature was applied at the card-stepped edges. The temperature drop across the heat spreader edge to the stepped plane was highest in the case of aluminum plate, followed by heat spreader and lowest in the case of PHP.

Figure 15. Temperature profile of heat spreaders to analyze temperature distribution from the edge to the stepped plane

Figure 15. The temperature profile of heat spreaders to analyze temperature distribution from the edge to the stepped plane

This reason can be explained as follows:

  • As the CAD model shows (Figure 3), the two-phase PHP channels extend all the way to the stepped edge of the heat spreader where the ICE-Lok® interfaces with the chassis. The two-phase channels have higher thermal conductance compared to the solid conduction. The heat pipes of the HiK™ plate only extend until the edge of the heat source plane, and not on the stepped edge. As a result, the heat transfer along the stepped plane is by base plate conduction in the case of the HiK™ plate.
  • Comparing the aluminum plate and the HiK™ plate: the two-dimensional conduction plane heat transfer originates near the stepped edge for the HiK™ plate, while for the baseline, heat transfer is by conduction only from the center to the stepped edge.

So, it is evident that two-phase channels of the PHP reduce the thermal resistance across the stepped edge plane to the chassis rails. The system thermal resistances with aluminum plate, HiK™ plate and PHP as heat spreaders were 2 °C/W, 1.1 °C/W, and 1 °C/W, respectively.

 I.     Conclusions

ACT developed and tested two-phase-based HiK™ plate and PHP as advanced heat spreaders for 3U card electronics cooling. HiK™ plate is a copper-water heat pipe embedded aluminum plate. In the PHP, propylene was used as the working fluid due to its suitability in working temperature and higher merit number over other common working fluids. The unique feature of the PHP is that the capillary channels can accommodate the sharp edges like that of the ICE-Lok® interface plane. Trade study of both HiK™ plate and the PHP showed heat handling capability up to 80 W and higher. Experimental results showed that both HiK™ plate and PHP can reduce the system thermal resistance by up to 50% from over 2 °C/W to around 1 °C/W in comparison to the aluminum plate (baseline). This can be attributed to the superior heat transfer characteristics of the two-phase working fluid in both the HiK™ plate (water) and the PHP. Table 1 summarizes the performance of the two heat spreaders.

The performance of the PHP heat spreader developed in this program is similar to that of the HiK™ plate but is lighter than the other two options. This is because the milled-out solid materials that form the channels is replaced by the saturated two-phase working fluid, which is less dense. The advantage of the PHP over the aluminum plate is that the two-phase channels extend onto the stepped edges, which improves the thermal conductance across the heat spreader-ICE-Lok® interface.

 

Table 1. Summary of performance of heat spreaders for 3U electronics cooling

Acknowledgments

This project is sponsored by NASA Goddard Space Center under an SBIR Phase I program (Contract# 80NSSC21C0211). We would like to thank Jeffrey Didion (technical monitor) for his support and valuable input to the program. NASA AMPS program managers (Jeffrey Csank and Brent Gardner) also provide insightful comments on this project. We would like to acknowledge Greg Hoeschele for his support on the development of the HiK™ plate. We would also like to acknowledge Justin Boyer, Jonathan Murray, and Philip Texter, who have significant technical contributions to prototype development and testing.

 

References

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LOOP THERMOSYPHON DESIGN FOR SOLAR THERMAL DESALINATION

Josh Charles and Nathan Van Velson, 5-6th Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), pages 239-248. (video presentation included).

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Interfacial thermal resistance between nm-thick MoS2 and quartz substrate:  A critical revisit under phonon mode-wide thermal non-equilibrium.

Hamidreza Zobeiria, Nicholas Hunter, Nathan Van Velson, Cheng Deng, Qianying Zhang, Xinwei Wang, Nano Energy, V.89, Part A, November 2021, 106364.

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Development of Solid-State Waste Heat Delivery System for Electric Aircraft

Heat pipe-based thermal delivery system to efficiently manage the waste heat of an electric aircraft.

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Hot Reservoir Variable Conductance Heat Pipe with Advanced Fluid Management

Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) in collaboration with Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) is developing a reliable VCHP configuration under the NASA STTR program. Presented at: 50th International Conference on Environmental Systems ICES-2021-242, 12-15 July 2021

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Thermal Management System for Lunar Ice Miners

Presented at: 50th International Conference on Environmental Systems ICES-2021-235, 12-15 July 2021

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ADVANCED WASTE HEAT RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY BY THERMO-RADIATIVE CELL FOR NUCLEAR SPACE POWER APPLICATIONS

In order to satisfy the long-lasting and high energy/power density requirements for NASA deep space exploration missions, Pu-238 has been identified as one of the most suitable radioisotope fuels for GPHS modules since the 1960s. Knoxville, TN, April 6 – April 9, 2020, available online at https://nets2020.ornl.gov

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Development of a Passive Thermal Control Valve for 3D-Printed Loop Heat Pipes

The focus of this work is the development of a passive thermal control valve (TCV) integrated with the design of a 3D-Printed LHP evaporator. (ICES) 2021, Virtual, July 12-15, 2021.

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Development of a Cold Plate for Spatial and Temporal Temperature Uniformity

Development of a cold plate which, through variable thermal conductance, provides spatial and temporal temperature uniformity to address this need. (ICES) 2021, Virtual, July 12-15, 2021.

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A Variable-View-Factor Two-Phase Radiator Manufactured Via Ultrasonic Welding

ACT in collaboration with Edison Welding Institute is developing a manufacturing process for the VVFTPR. This paper describes the ultrasonic welding technique chosen for manufacturing as well as material choices and other considerations. In collaboration with Edison Welding Institute, Columbus, Ohio. (ICES) 2021, Virtual, July 12-15, 2021

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Pumped 2-Phase Cooling as an Enabler for a Modular, Medium- Voltage, Solid-State Circuit Breaker

In collaboration with Eaton Research Labs, USA, ACT's Andy Slippey and Devin Pellicone presented Pumped Two-Phase Cooling as an enable for Modular, Medium Voltage, Solid-State Circuit Breaker. PCIM Europe digital days 2021, 3 – 7 May 2021 I http://www.pcim-europe.com/

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THERMALLY-DRIVEN EJECTOR FOR VACUUM FREEZING DESALINATION AT THE TRIPLE POINT

Jianjian Wang, Fangyu Cao, "Thermally-Driven Ejector for Vacuum Freezing Desalination at the Triple Point," 5th Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), 2020-32060.

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Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Variable Conductance Thermosyphon

Cho-Ning Huang, Kuan-Lin Lee, Calin Tarau, Yasuhiro Kamotani and Chirag R. Kharangate, "Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Variable Conductance Thermosyphon", Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, vol 25, 2021.

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Technoeconomic Benefits of Film-Forming Amine Products Applied to Steam Surface Condensers

Sean H. Hoenig, et al., PPCHEM Journal-23 2021/01, pp. 4-16.

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Surface-Functionalized Boron Nanoparticles with Reduced Oxide Content by Nonthermal Plasma Processing for Nanoenergetic Applications

Prawal P. K. Agarwal, Devon Jensen, Chien-Hua Chen, Robert M. Rioux, and Themis Matsoukas; ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c20825

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Development of Variable-View-Factor and Deployable Two-Phase Radiator

Jeff Diebold, Calin Tarau, Andrew Lutz and Srujan Rokkam, “Development of Variable-View-Factor and Deployable Two-Phase Radiator", ICES 2020-317

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Modeling of a Loop Thermosyphon Supplying Solar Energy to a Desalination Boiler

Josh Charles et al., SolarPaces, September 29, 2020, https://2020.solarpaces-conference.org/home.html

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Turbulent flow and heat flux analysis from validated large eddy simulations of flow past a heated cylinder in the near wake region

Arpan Sircar, Mark Kimber, Srujan Rokkam, and Gerrit Botha, Physics of Fluids 32, 125119 (2020)

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Plasma-Assisted Dry Methane Reforming for Syngas Production

Howard Pearlman et al., Spring Technical Meeting of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, March 8-11, 2018.

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Direct Simulations of Biphilic-Surface Condensation: Optimized Size Effects

Zijie Chen, Sanat Modak, Massoud Kaviany, Richard Bonner, “Direct Simulations of Biphilic-Surface Condensation: Optimized Size Effects” Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer (FHMT), vol 14, 2020/2/27

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Cooling High Power Processing Devices Onboard Satellites: Testing Considerations for Space Copper-Water Heat Pipes (SCWHPs)

Pete Dussinger, Jens Weyant, Ryan Spangler. Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., (Lancaster, PA).

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Rigorous prediction of Raman intensity from multi-layer films

Nathan Van Velson, Hamidreza Zobeiri, and Xinwei Wang Optics Express Vol. 28, Issue 23, pp. 35272-35283 (2020)

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Development of High Heat Flux Titanium-Water CCHPs

Andrew Lutz et al., International Conference on Environmental Systems, ICES-2020-323. (2020)

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Advanced Hot Reservoir Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Planetary Landers

Kuan-Lin Lee et al. , International Conference on Environmental Systems, ICES-2020-579. (2020)

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Thermal Concept for Planetary Ice Melting Probe

Kuan-LinLee et al., International Conference on Environmental Systems, ICES-2020-201. (2020)

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Role of substrate thermal conductivity and vapor pressure in dropwise condensation

Sean H. Hoenig et al., Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 178, September 2020, 115529

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Innovative Solutions to Meet Thermal Performance of High-Power Laser Systems

Bryan Muzyka, SPIE Photonics West, San Francisco, CA, February 1-6, 2020.

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Titanium-Water Heat Pipe Radiators for Space Fission Power System Thermal Management

Lee, K., Tarau, C., Anderson, W.G. et al., Microgravity Science Technology. (2020)

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Thin hybrid capillary two-phase cooling system

Mohammad Reza Shaeri, et al., International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 112, March 2020, 104490

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Vertical Surface Dropwise Condensation Heat Transfer Using Self-Healing Coatings

Sean H. Hoenig et al., 19th IAHR International Conference on Cooling Towers and Heat Exchangers , Washington, DC, October 8-10 2019

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Thermoradiative Cell – A New Waste Heat Recovery Technology for Space Power Applications

Jianjian Wang et al., International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Indianapolis, IN, August 19-22 2019

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A Systems Study of a Stirling Convertor based Space Nuclear Power System

Joesph VanderVeer et al., International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Indianapolis, IN, August 19-22 2019

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Prototype Results for a Salt Hydrate PCM Thermal Energy Storage System

Sean Hoenig et al., ASME 2019 Summer Heat Transfer Conference (HT2019), Bellevue, WA, July 15-18 2019

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Variable-View-Factor Two-Phase Radiator

Andrew Lutz et al., 49th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES), Boston, Massachusetts, July 7-11 2019

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Development of a 3D Printed Loop Heat Pipe

Bradley Richard et al., 49th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES), Boston, Massachusetts, July 7-11 2019

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24 Hour Consumable-based Cooling System for Venus Lander

Kuan-Lin Lee and Calin Tarau, 49th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES), Boston, Massachusetts, July 7-11 2019

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Thermal Control of Lunar and Mars Rovers/Landers Using Hybrid Heat Pipes

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 33(3), July 2019

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3D Printed Thermal Management System for the Next Generation of Gallium Nitride-Based Solid State Power Amplifiers

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al., 49th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES), Boston, Massachusetts, July 7-11 2019

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Performance Evaluation of a Loop Thermosyphon Based Heat-Sink for High Power SiC-based Converter Applications

Sayan Acharya, et al., IEEE: Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, June 17 2019, 1-1

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Development of a 3D Printed Loop Heat Pipe

Bradley Richard, et al., Semi-Therm, San Jose, CA, March 18 – 22 2019

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Enhanced vacuum freezing for thermal desalination at the triple point

Fangyu Cao and Jianjian Wang, 4th Thermal & Fluids Engineering Conference, Las Vegas, NV, April 14-17 2019

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Advances in Lightweight Heat Sinks

Mohammad Reza Shaeri and Richard Bonner, 4th Thermal & Fluids Engineering Conference, Las Vegas, NV, April 14-17 2019

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A Nonlocal Peridynamics Modeling Approach for Corrosion Damage and Crack Propagation

Srujan Rokkam, et al., Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 101, 2019, 373–387 (2019)

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Vortex dynamics and heat transfer of longitudinal vortex generators in a rectangular channel

Zhaoqing Ke, et al., International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 132, 875-885 (2019)

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Meshless Peridynamics Method for Modeling Corrosion Crack Propagation

Srujan Rokkam, et al., 6th International Crack Paths Conference, Verona, Italy, September 19-21 2018

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Bio-inspired self-agitator for convective heat transfer enhancement

Zheng Li et al., Applied Physical Letters 113, 113703 (2018)

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Corrosion testing of metals in contact with calcium chloride hexahydrate used for thermal energy storage

S. J. Ren et al., Materials and Corrosion, Volume 68, Issue 10, July 2017

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Thermal energy storage with tunable melting point phase change materials

Fangyu Cao et al., Proceedings of the 16th International Heat Transfer Conference, Bejing, China, August 10-15, 2018

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Loop Heat Pipe Wick Fabrication via Additive Manufacturing

Bradley Richard et al., 48th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Albuquerque, New Mexico, July 8-12, 2018

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Design Analysis and Performance testing of a Novel Passive Thermal Management System for Future Exploration Missions

Angel R. Alvarez-Hernandez et al., International Conference on Environmental Systems, Albuquerque, NM July 8-12, 2018

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High-Heat-Flux (> 50 W/cm2) Hybrid Constant Conductance Heat Pipes

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al. International Conference on Environmental Systems, Albuquerque, NM, July 8-12, 2018

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Demonstration of Copper-Water Heat Pipes Embedded in High Conductivity (HiK™) Plates in the Advanced Passive Thermal eXperiment (APTx) on the International Space Station (ISS)

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al., International Conference on Environmental Systems, Albuquerque, NM July 8-12, 2018

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Advanced Passive Thermal eXperiment (APTx) for Warm-Reservoir Hybrid-Wick Variable Conductance Heat Pipes on the International Space Station (ISS),”

Calin Tarau, et al., International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2018), Albuquerque, NM July 8-12, 2018

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Apparatus for Characterizing Hot Surface Ignition of Aviation Fuels

Andrew Slippey et al., AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum, (AIAA 2018-4708), Cincinnati, OH, July 9-12, 2018

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Titanium Water Heat Pipe Radiators for Space Fission System Thermal Management

Kuan-Lin Lee, et al., 19th International Heat Pipe Conference, Pisa, Italy, June 10-14, 2018

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Copper-Water and Hybrid Aluminum-Ammonia Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Thermal Control Applications

Mohammed Ababneh, et al., 19th International Heat Pipe Conference, Pisa, Italy, June 10-14, 2018

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Loop Heat Pipe Wick Fabrication via Additive Manufacturing

Bradley Richard, et al., 19th International Heat Pipe Conference, Pisa, Italy, June 10-14, 2018

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Meshless Computational tools for Fatigue Damage and Failure Modeling

Srujan Rokkam et al., ITHERM 2018 (17th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems), San Diego, CA, May 29 – June 1

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Thermal Management Technologies for Embedded Cooling Applications

Andy Slippey et al., ITHERM 2018 (17th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems), San Diego, CA, May 29 – June 1

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Experimental Investigation of Gravity-Driven Two-Phase Cooling for Power Electronics Applications

Devin Pellicone, PCIM 2018, Nuremberg, Germany, June 5-7, 2018.

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Experimental, Numerical and Analytic Study of Unconstrained Melting in a Vertical Cylinder with a Focus on Mushy Region Effects

Chunjian Pan,⇑, Joshua Charles, Natasha Vermaak, Carlos Romero, Sudhakar Neti, Energy Research Center, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA Ying Zheng, Chien-Hua Chen, Richard Bonner III, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., Lancaster, PA 17601, USA International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Accepted 2 April 2018

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A Non-Thermal Gliding Arc Plasma Reformer for Syngas Production

Howard Pearlman, 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018

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An Innovative Volatile Organic Compound Incinerator

Joel Crawmer et al., International Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT3), Houston, TX, March 6-8 2018

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Developing High-Temperature Water-Repellent Glass Fibers Through Atomic Layer Deposition

Mohammad Reza Shaeri et al., 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018.

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Dropwise Condensation on Hydrophobic Microporous Powder and the Transition to Intrapowder Droplet Removal

Sean Hoenig and Richard W. Bonner, III, 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018.

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The Key Role of Pumping Power in Active Cooling Systems

Mohammed Reza Shaeri, 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018.

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Nucleating agent enhanced thermal desalination at the triple point

Fangyu Cao et al., 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018

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Titanium Water Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power Cooling

Kuan-Lin Lee et al. ANS NETS 2018 – Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space Las Vegas, NV, February 26 – March 1, 2018

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Dropwise Condensation on Superhydrophobic Microporous Wick Structures

Sean Hoenig, Richard Bonner, Ph.D., ASME doi:10.1115/1.4038854 History: Received April 28, 2017; Revised December 06, 2017

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A Peridynamics-FEM Approach for Crack Path Prediction in Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Srujan Rokkam et al., 2018 AIAA SciTech Forum, Kissimmee, FL, January 8-12, 2018.

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Vapor chambers with hydrophobic and biphilic evaporators in moderate to high heat flux applications

Mohammad Reza Shaeri, Daniel Attinger, Richard W. Bonner III, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 130(5), Pages 83-92, February 2018

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Model-Based Dynamic Control of Active Thermal Management System

ASME 2017 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition IMECE 2017 - 71918, November 3-9, 2017 Tampa, FL. Nathan Van Velson, Srujan Rokkam, Quang Truong, Bryan Rasmussen

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Efficient optimization of a longitudinal finned heat pipe structure for a latent thermal energy storage system

Sean Hoenig et al., Energy Conversion and Management, 153, pp. 93-105, 2017.

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The Electroneutrality Constraint in Nonlocal Models

Eitan Lees, Srujan Rokkam, Sachin Shanbhag, and Max Gunzburger. Journal of Chemical Physics 147, 124102 (2017)

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Heat Pipe Embedded Thermoelectric Generator for Diesel Generator Set Waste Heat Recovery

James Schmidt and Mohammed Ababneh. 14th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum, (AIAA 2016-4605)

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Efficient Modeling of Phase Change Material Solidification with Multidimensional Fins

C. Pan et al., International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 115, Part A, pp. 897-909, December 2017.

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Integrated Vapor Chamber Heat Spreader for Power Module Applications

Clayton Hose et al., InterPACK 2017, San Francisco, CA, August 29 – September 1, 2017

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Heat transfer and pressure drop in laterally perforated-finned heat sinks across different flow regimes

Mohammad Reza Shaeri, Richard Bonner Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., Lancaster, PA 17601, United States , Available online 24 August 2017

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Feasibility Study of a Vapor Chamber with a Hydrophobic Evaporator Substrate in High Heat Flux Applications

Mohammad Reza Shaeria et al., International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 86, pp. 199–205, 2017.

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Effect of Perforation Size to Perforation Spacing on Heat Transfer in Laterally Perforated-Finned Heat Sinks

Mohammed Reza Shaeri, and Richard W. Bonner III, ASME 2017 Summer Heat Transfer Conference (HT2017), July 9-14, 2017, Bellevue, Washington, USA

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Two-Phase Heat Exchanger with Thermal Storage Capability for Space Thermal Control System

Two-Phase Heat Exchanger with Thermal Storage Capability for Space Thermal Control System, Kuan-Lin Lee, et al. 47th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2017), July 16-20, 2017, Charleston, South Carolina

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Advanced Passive Thermal Experiment for Hybrid Variable Conductance Heat Pipes and HiK™ Plates on the International Space Station

Advanced Passive Thermal Experiment for Hybrid Variable Conductance Heat Pipes and HiK™ Plates on the International Space Station, Mohammed T. Ababneh, et al. 47th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2017), July 16-20, 2017, Charleston, South Carolina

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LHP Wick Fabrication via Additive Manufacturing

LHP Wick Fabrication via Additive Manufacturing. Bradley Richard, et al. 47th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2017), July 16-20, 2017, Charleston, South Carolina

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High Temperature Water Heat Pipes for Kilopower System

Derek Beard et al., IECEC – AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition (AIAA Propulsion and Energy 2017), July 10-12, Atlanta, Georgia

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Sodium Heat Pipes for Space and Surface Fission Power

Derek Beard, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, IECEC – AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition (AIAA Propulsion and Energy 2017), July 10-12, Atlanta, Georgia

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Laminar Forced Convection Heat Transfer From Laterally Perforated-Finned Heat Sinks

Mohammad Reza Shaeri and Richard W. Bonner III, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 116, pp. 406-418, April 2017.

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An Innovative Volatile Organic Compound Incinerator

Joel Crawmer et al., 10th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, College Park, MD, April 23-26, 2017

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A Swiss Roll Style Combustion Reactor for Non-Catalytic Reforming

Ryan Zelinsky et al., 10th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, College Park, MD, April 23-26, 2017

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Thermal Resistance Network Model for Heat Pipe-PCM Based Cool Storage System

Sean Hoenig et al., 2nd Thermal and Fluid Engineering Conference (TFEC2017), Las Vegas, NV, April 2-5 2017.

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Development of Low Cost Radiator for Surface Fission Power

Calin Tarau et al., International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Salt Lake City, UT, July 25-27, 2016

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Generation of amorphous carbon models using liquid quench method: A reactive molecular dynamics study.

Raghavan Ranganathan, Srujan Rokkam, Tapan Desai, Pawel Keblinski Carbon, Volume 113, March 2017, Pages 87–99

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Self-Venting Arterial Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Applications

Derek Beard, William G. Anderson, and Calin Tarau, International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Salt Lake City, UT, July 25-27, 2016

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Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al., International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) 2016, Vienna. Austria, July 11-14, 2016

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Development of a Pumped Two-phase System for Spacecraft Thermal Control

Michael C. Ellis and Richard C. Kurwitz, International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) 2016, Vienna. Austria, July 11-14, 2016

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Vapor Chamber with Phase Change Material-Based Wick Structure

James Yun, Calin Tarau, and Nathan Van Velson, International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) 2016, Vienna. Austria, July 11-14, 2016

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A Novel Closed System, Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Design for High Stability Isothermal Furnace Liner Applications

Taylor Maxwell et al., 13th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science (TEMPMEKO 2016), Zakopane, Poland, June 26 – July 1, 2016

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Thermal Enhancements for Separable Thermal Mechanical Interfaces

James Schmidt et al., AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Washington, D.C., June 13-17, 2016

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The Design of a Split Loop Thermosyphon Heat Exchanger for Use in HVAC Applications

Daniel Reist et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Hot Reservoir Stainless-Methanol Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Constant Evaporator Temperature in Varying Ambient Conditions

Jens Weyant et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Hybrid Variable and Constant Conductance Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Environments and High Heat Flux Space Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Self-Venting Arterial Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Applications

William G. Anderson et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Performance Life Testing of a Nanoscale Coating for Erosion and Corrosion Protection in Copper Microchannel Coolers

Nathan Van Velson and Matt Flannery, IEEE ITherm Conference, May 31-June 3, 2016, Las Vegas, NV

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Heat Pipes used as Heat Flux Transformers and for Remote Heat Rejection

Devin Pellicone and Jens Weyant, PCIM Europe 2016, Nuremberg, Germany, May 10-12, 2016

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Enhanced Filmwise Condensation with Thin Porous Coating

Ying Zheng, Chien-Hua Chen, Howard Pearlman, Richard Bonner, First Pacific Rim Thermal Engineering Conference, PRTEC, March 13-17, 2016, Hawaii's Big Island, USA.

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Optimized Alkali Metal Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

Calin Tarau, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS) 2016, Huntsville, AL, February 22-25, 2016.

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Status of the Development of Low Cost Radiator for Surface Fission Power II

Calin Tarau, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS) 2016, Huntsville, AL, February 22-25, 2016.

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Passivation and Stabilization of Aluminum Nanoparticles for Energetic Materials

Matthew Flannery, Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2015, Received 17 June 2015; Accepted 13 October 2015

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Modeling high-temperature diffusion of gases in micro and mesoporous amorphous carbon

Raghavan Ranganathan, Srujan Rokkam, Tapan Desai, Pawel Keblinski, Peter Cross, and Richard Burnes, The Journal of Chemical Physics 143, 084701 (2015).

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Optimized Heat Pipe Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

Carl L. Schwendeman, Calin Tarau, Nicholas A. Schifer, John Polak, and William G. Anderson, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Status of the Low-Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

Taylor Maxwell, Calin Tarau, William G. Anderson, Scott Garner, Matthew Wrosch, and Maxwell H. Briggs, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Water-Titanium Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Fission Power

Rebecca Hay and William G. Anderson, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Two-Phase Thermal Switch for Spacecraft Passive Thermal Management

Nathan Van Velson, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Multiple Loop Heat Pipe Radiator for Variable Heat Rejection in Future Spacecraft

Nathan Van Velson, Calin Tarau, Mike DeChristopher, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Hybrid Heat Pipes for Planetary Surface and High Heat Flux Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Experimental Investigation on the Thermal and Hydraulic Performance of Alumina–Water Nanofluids in Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plates

Ehsan Yakhshi-Tafti, Sanjida Tamanna and Howard Pearlman, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 137, July 1, 2015

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A “Swiss-Roll” Fuel Reformer: Experiments and Modeling

Chien-Hua Chen, Bradley Richard, Ying Zheng, Howard Pearlman, Shrey Trivedi, Srusti Koli, Andrew Lawson, and Paul Ronney, “A “Swiss-Roll” Fuel Reformer: Experiments and Modeling,” 9th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, May 17-20, 2015.

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Effect of Porous Coating on Condensation Heat Transfer

Ying Zheng, Chien-hua Chen, Howard Pearlman, Matt Flannery and Richard Bonner. 9th International Conference on Boiling and Condensation Heat Transfer, April 26-30, 2015, Boulder, Colorado.

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High Temperature Water-Titanium Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Fission Power

Rebecca Hay and William G. Anderson, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2015), Albuquerque, NM, February 23-26, 2015.

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Nanoscale Coating for Microchannel Cooler Protection in High Powered Laser Diodes

Tapan Desai, Matthew Flannery, Nathan Van Velson, and Philip Griffin, “Nanoscale Coating for Microchannel Cooler Protection in High Powered Laser Diodes,” Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM 2015), San Jose, CA, March 16-19, 2015.

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Fuel-Flexible Hybrid Solar Coal Gasification Reactor

M. Flannery et al., "Fuel-Flexible Hybrid Solar Coal Gasification Reactor," 2014 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, October 6 - 9, 2014.

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Heat Pipe Embedded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Enclosures for Avionics Thermal Management

Andrew Slippey, Michael C. Ellis, Bruce Conway, and Hyo Chang Yun. SAE 2014 Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference, Cincinnati, OH, September 23-25, 2014.

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Passive Thermal Management for Avionics in High Temperature Environments

Michael C. Ellis, William G. Anderson, and Jared R. Montgomery. SAE 2014 Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference, Cincinnati, OH, September 23-25, 2014.

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Passivation of Aluminum Nanoparticles by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energetic Nanomaterials

T. Desai et al., ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces Journal, 2014, 6 (10), pp. 7942–7947, DOI: 10.1021/am5012707

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Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes

Ababneh, Mohammed T., Shakti Chauhan, Pramod Chamarthy, and Frank M. Gerner. "Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes." Journal of Heat Transfer 136, no. 11 (2014): 112901.

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Launch Vehicle Avionics Passive Thermal Management

W. G. Anderson et al., “Launch Vehicle Avionics Passive Thermal Management,” 44th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2014), Tucson, AZ, July 13-17, 2014.

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Low Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

Taylor Maxwell et al, 12th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, OH, July 28-30, 2014.

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Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Subcooled and Saturated Refrigerants in Minichannel Heat Sinks

E. Yakhshi-Tafti et al., ASME 2014 4th Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting and 12th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, August 3-7, 2014, Chicago, IL.

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Thermal-Fluid Modeling for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes

M. T. Ababneh et al., published in the AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 270-278, April 2014.

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Thermoelectric Performance Model Development and Validation for a Selection and Design Tool

Thomas Nunnally, Devin Pellicone, Nathan Van Velson, James Schmidt, Tapan Desai, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014.

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High Heat Flux Heat Pipes Embedded in Metal Core Printed Circuit Boards for LED Thermal Management

Dan Pounds, Richard W. Bonner III, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014

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Enhancing Thermal Performance in Embedded Computing for Ruggedized Military and Avionics Applications

Darren Campo, Jens Weyant, Bryan Muzyka, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014.

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A Corrosion and Erosion Protection Coating for Complex Microchannel Coolers used in High Power Laser Diodes

Tapan G. Desai, Matthew Flannery, Angie Fan, Jens Weyant, Henry Eppich, Keith Lang, Richard Chin, and Aland Chin, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014

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The Thermal Conductivity of Clustered Nanocolloids

T. Desai et al., APL Materials, 2, 066102 (2014); doi: 10.1063/1.4880975. 21 May 2014;

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Diffuse interface modeling of void growth in irradiated materials. Mathematical, thermodynamic and atomistic perspectives

Anter El-Azab Karim Ahmed, Srujan Rokkam, Thomas Hochrainer, Published in Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science (COSSMS), Vol. 18, pg. 90-98, 2014.

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Effect of Crosslink Formation on Heat Conduction in Amorphous Polymers

Gota Kikugawa, Tapan G. Desai, et al., Journal of Applied Physics 114, published online July 16, 2013

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Cooling of Stirling Convertor and General Purpose Heat Source

Calin Tarau, et al.,11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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High Temperature Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power

Kara L. Walker, et al.,11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator for Lunar Fission Power Systems

William G. Anderson, et al., 11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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Ammonia and Propylene Loop Heat Pipes with Thermal Control Valves – Thermal/Vacuum and Freeze/Thaw Testing

Kara Walker, et al., 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2013), Vail, CO, July 14-18, 2013.

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Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Life Tests and Analyses

W. G. Anderson, et al., 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2013), Vail, CO, July 14-18, 2013

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Correlation for dropwise condensation heat transfer: Water, organic fluids, and inclination

Richard W. Bonner III, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 61, June 2013, Pages 245-253

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A Non-Catalytic Fuel-Flexible Reformer

Chien-Hua Chen, et al., 8th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, hosted by the University of Utah, May 19-22, 2013

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Planar vapor chamber with hybrid evaporator wicks for the thermal management of high-heat-flux and high-power optoelectronic devices

P. Dussinger et al., International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 60, pp. 163–169, May 2013.

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Variable Conductance Thermal Management System for Balloon Payloads

Calin Tarau and William G. Anderson, 20th AIAA Lighter-Than-Air Systems Technology Conference, Daytona Beach, FL, March, 25-28, 2013

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Preliminary First Principle Based Electro-thermal Coupled Solver for Silicon Carbide Power Devices

Angie Fan et al., 29th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium, San Jose, CA, March 17-21, 2013

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Trade Study for Lunar Fission Power Systems

William G. Anderson, Bryan J. Muzyka, and John R. Hartenstine, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems – Experimental Results

Carl Schwendeman, Calin Tarau, William G. Anderson, and Peggy A. Cornell, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Alkali Metal Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power

Kara L. Walker, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Syngas Production by Thermochemical Conversion of CO2 and H2O Using a High-Temperature Heat Pipe Based Reactor

H. Pearlman and Chien-Hua Chen, SPIE Solar Hydrogen and Nanotechnology VII, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8469 San Diego, CA, August 12-14, 2012.

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Diode Heat Pipes for Venus Landers

Calin Tarau et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2012.

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Long-Lived Venus Lander Thermal Management System Design

Rebecca Hay et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Atlanta, GA, July 30 July-August 1, 2012.

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Variable Thermal Links

W. G. Anderson et al., 42nd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2012), San Diego, CA, July 15-19, 2012.

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Applications

W. G. Anderson et al., 16th International Heat Pipe Conference, Lyon, France, May 20-24, 2012.

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The Effect of Device Level Modeling on System-Level Thermal Predictions

Jens Weyant, et al., ITherm, San Diego, CA, May 30, 2012,

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Integration of a Phase Change Material for Junction-Level Cooling in GaN Devices

Daniel Piedra, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2012

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An Innovative Passive Cooling Method for High Performance Light-emitting Diodes

Angie Fan, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2012

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Ultra High Temperature Isothermal Furnace Liners (IFLs) For Copper Freeze Point Cells

Peter Dussinger and John Tavener, 9th International Temperature Symposium, Anaheim, CA, March 2012

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High Heat Flux, High Power, Low Resistance, Low CTE Two-Phase Thermal Ground Planes for Direct Die Attach Applications

Peter Dussinger, et al., GOMACTech 2012, Las Vegas, Nevada, March 2012

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Passive Control of a Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Lunar Lander Application

K. L. Walker et al., 42nd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2012), San Diego, CA, July 15-19, 2012.

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A Computational Model of a Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger in a Vapor Compression System with a Large Pulsed Heat Load

G. Troszak and X. Tang, Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Puerto Rico, July 8-12, 2012.

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2-D Simulation of Hot Electron-Phonon Interactions in a Submicron Gallium Nitride Device Using Hydrodynamic Transport Approach

Angie Fan et al., ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Puerto Rico, USA , July 8-12, 2012

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Novel Junction Level Cooling in Pulsed GaN Devices

Tapan G. Desai, et al., ITherm, San Diego, CA, May 30, 2012,

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Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Life Tests

W. G. Anderson, et al., 16th International Heat Pipe Conference, Lyon, France, May 20-24, 2012.

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Passivation Coatings for Micro-channel Coolers

Richard W. Bonner III, Jens Weyant, Evan Fleming, Kevin Lu, Daniel Reist, APEC 2012, Orlando FL, February 1, 2012

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Regolith Oxygen Production with Multiple Reactors

John Hartenstine, et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2011

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Thermal Management System for Long-Lived Venus Landers

Calin Tarau, et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2011

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes

William Anderson, et al., 41st International Conference on Environmental Systems, Portland, OR, July 17-21, 2011

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for a Lunar Variable Thermal Link

Chris Peters, et al., 41st International Conference on Environmental Systems, Portland, OR, July 17-21, 2011

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Two-Phase Heat Sinks with Microporous Coating

T. Semenic and S. M. You, 9th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, Edmonton, CA, June 19-22, 2011

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Die Level Thermal Storage for Improved Cooling of Pulsed Devices

Richard Bonner III, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA., March 2011

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A 2-D Numerical Study of Microscale Phase Change Material Thermal Storage for GaN Transistor Thermal Management

Xudong Tang, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2011

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Dynamic Response of Phenolic Resin and Its Carbon-nanotube Composites to Shock Wave Loading

Arman, et. al., Journal of Applied Physics, 109, 013503 (2011)

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Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Variable Thermal Conductance Link of Lunar Landers and Rovers

Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Variable Thermal Conductance Link of Lunar Landers and Rovers, J. R. Hartenstine et al., 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, FL, January 4-7, 2011.

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Electronics Cooling Using High Temperature Loop Heat Pipes with Multiple Condensers

William G. Anderson, et al., SAE Power Systems Conference, Ft. Worth, TX, November 2010

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Development of Heat Pipe Loop Technology for Military Vehicle Electronics Cooling

Xudong Tang et al., NDIA Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering and Technology Symposium, Dearborn, Michigan, August 2010

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Dropwise Condensation Life Testing of Self Assembled Monolayers

Richard Bonner III, IHTC14, Washington, DC, August 2010

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Heat and Mass Transfer in a Permeable Fabric system Under Hot Air Jet Impingement,

Sangsoo Lee et. al., International Heat Transfer Conference (IHTC14), Washington, DC, August, 2010

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Variable Thermal Conductance Link for Lunar Landers and Rovers

William G Anderson et. al., IECEC, Nashville, Tennessee, July, 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems – Design and Experimental Results

Calin Tarau and William G Anderson, IECEC, Nashville, Tennessee, July, 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe with Carbon-Carbon Radiator for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau and William G. Anderson, 15th International Heat Pipe Conference, Clemson, SC, April 2010

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Low-Temperature, Dual Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith

Kara Walker et al., 15th International Heat Pipe Conference, Clemson, South Carolina, April, 2010

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes

William G. Anderson, John R. Hartenstine, David B. Sarraf, and Calin Tarau, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., Pennsylvania, 15th International Heat Pipe Conference (15th IHPC) Clemson, USA, April 25-30, 2010.

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Dropwise Condensation in Vapor Chambers

Richard Bonner, 26th IEEE Semi-Therm Symposium, Santa Clara, California, February 2010

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Sodium VCHP with Carbon-Carbon Radiator for Radioisotope Stirling Systems,

Calin Tarau, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Laurel, Maryland, February 2010

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Advanced VCS Evaporators for Lunar Lander and Lunar Habitat Thermal Control Applications

Tadej Semenic, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Laurel, Maryland, February 2010

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Modeling Initial Stage of Phenolic Pyrolysis: Graphitic Precursor Formation and Interfacial Effects

Tapan Desai, et al., Polymer, 52, 2010

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Slip Behavior at Ionic Solid-fluid Interfaces

Tapan Desai, NDIA Chemical Physics Letters, 501, 2010, 93-97

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Roles of Atomic Restructuring in Interfacial Phonon Transport

Seungha Shin et. al., Physical Review B, 82, 081302 (2010)

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Anisotropic Shock Response of Columnar Nanocrystalline Cu

Sheng-Nian Luo et. al., Journal of Applied Physics , 107, 123507 (2010)

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Heat Pipe Embedded Alsic Plates for High Conductivity-Low CTE Heat Spreaders

J. Weyant, ITHERM 2010, Las Vegas NV,

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith

John R. Hartenstine, et al., AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, January 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., 7th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Denver Colorado, August 2009

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Loop Heat Pipe Design, Manufacturing and Testing – an Industrial Perspective

William Anderson, et al., ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Dropwise Condensation on Surfaces with Graded Hydrophobicity

Richard Bonner, ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Evaporators for High Temperature Lift Vapor Compression Loop for Space Applications

Tadej Semenic and Xudong Tang, ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiators for Lunar and Martian Environments

William Anderson, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production of Lunar Regolith

John Hartenstine, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Performance after Extended Periods of Freezing

Michael Ellis and William Anderson, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Loop Heat Pipe for TacSat-4

Peter Dussinger, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Advanced Thermal Management Technologies for High Power Automotive Equipment

Jon Zuo, et al., National Defense Industrial Association Ground Vehicle Power and Energy Workshop, Troy, Michigan, November 2008

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Vibration and Shock Tolerant Capillary Two-Phase Loop Technology for Vehicle Thermal Control

Xudong Tang and Chanwoo Park, 2008 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Jacksonville, Florida, August 2008

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NaK Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., 6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, Ohio, July 2008

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Heat Pipe Cooling of Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems

William Anderson, et al., 6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, Ohio, July 2008

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Startup Characteristics and Gravity Effects on a Medium/High-Lift Heat Pump Using Advanced Hybrid Loop Technology

Eric Sunada, et al., 38th SAE International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, California, June 2008

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High Temperature and High Heat Flux Thermal Management for Electronics

David Sarraf and William Anderson, IMAPS International Conference on High Temperature Electronics Conference (HiTEC 2008), Albuquerque, New Mexico, May 2008

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Heat Pipe Cooling of Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

William Anderson, et al., 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, San Diego, California, May 2008

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Local Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements of Flat Angled Sprays Using Thermal Test Vehicle

Richard Bonner, et al., 24th IEEE Semi-Therm Symposium, San Jose, California, March 2008

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe for Precise Temperature Control

David Sarraf, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Power Systems

John Hartenstine, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

William Anderson and Calin Tarau, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Vapor Compression Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology for Lunar Surface Applications

Chanwoo Park and Eric Sunada, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Experimental Study of Oscillating Flow Heat Transfer

Angie Fan, et al., Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer International Conference, Tainan, Taiwan, January 2008

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Metal Hydride Heat Storage Technology for Directed Energy Weapon Systems

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exhibition, Seattle, Washington, November 2007

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Electronics Thermal Management Using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2007 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Loop Thermosyphon Design for Cooling of Large Area, High Heat Flux Sources

John Hartenstine, et al., InterPACK 2007, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Heat Pipes for High Temperature Thermal Management

David Sarraf and William Anderson, InterPACK 2007, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes

William Anderson, 2007 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, St. Louis, MO, June 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests – Experiments

William Anderson, et al., 2007 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, St. Louis, MO, June 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests – Theory

Calin Tarau, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, NM, February 11 - 15, 2007.

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Spacecraft Thermal Management Using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, NM, February 11 - 15, 2007.

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Advanced Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for High Performance Thermal Management

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger with Two Levels of Isolation for Environmental Control of Manned Spacecraft Crew Compartment

David Sarraf, 37th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Norfolk, VA, July 17-20, 2006.

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Passive Thermal Management for a Fuel Cell Reforming Process

David Sarraf, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High Temperature Water-Titanium Heat Pipe Radiator

William Anderson, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High Temperature Titanium-Water and Monel-Water Heat Pipes

William Anderson, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High-Temperature Water Heat Pipes

David Sarraf and William Anderson, IMAPS International Conference on High Temperature Electronics, Santa Fe, NM, May 15 - 18, 2006

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High Performance Heat Storage and Dissipation Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE), Orlando, FL, November 5 - 11, 2005.

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Design and Testing of Titanium/Cesium and Titanium/Potassium Heat Pipes

Peter Dussinger, et al., 2005 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Francisco, CA, August 2005.

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High Temperature Lightweight Heat Pipe Panel Technology Development

Ted Stern and William Anderson, Space Nuclear Conference 2005, San Diego, CA, June 2005.

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Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Trade Study for the 300-550K Temperature Range

William Anderson and Walter Bienert, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2005

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Hybrid Loop Thermal Bus Technology for Vehicle Thermal Management

Chanwoo Park, et al., 24th Army Science Conference, Orlando, FL, November 29 - December 2, 2004

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