Modeling of a Loop Thermosyphon Supplying Solar Energy to a Desalination Boiler

  • Abstract. A new concentrated solar desalination system based on a two-phase working fluid with volumetric solar absorption is under development. This system promises to improve overall solar to thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power by taking advantage of the passive flow circulation of a loop thermosyphon. To predict system performance, a two-phase loop thermosyphon model was developed around well-validated, two-phase frictional pressure drop correlations. The model was used to analyze pressure drops and resulting fluid saturation temperatures throughout the loop. Good agreement was found between predicted fluid mass flow rate and that measured in a lab-scale loop thermosyphon prototype. The model continues to be developed and will be validated against a larger-scale prototype system.

Introduction

Concentrated solar power (CSP) is an attractive option for providing process heat for saltwater desalination. This heat can be used for brine distillation or brine heating upstream of a reverse osmosis membrane. Most CSP systems utilize parabolic trough solar concentrators coupled with steel evacuated tube receivers. This CSP configuration experiences optical losses across the trough and transmittance and heat transfer losses within the receiver. At the system level, there are heat transfer losses from the field tubing to the environment, and a significant parasitic pumping power requirement. To minimize receiver and pumping power efficiency losses, Advanced Cooling Technologies (ACT) has designed a solar thermal desalination system with a new solar receiver and heat transfer fluid (HTF), where the pump is eliminated through use of a passively driven, two-phase loop thermosyphon (Fig. 1).

ACT’s desalination solar collector improves on the state of the art (SOA) in three key areas. First, the vacuum insulated steel receiver is replaced by a vacuum insulated glass receiver, which allows the solar radiation to directly impinge on and be absorbed by the working fluid. This change eliminates conductive and convective losses across the receiver tube wall. Selection of an appropriate working fluid is critical as the working fluid must achieve close to 100% volumetric solar spectral absorptance and maintain performance over prolonged thermal and UV exposure. Through life-testing, ACT is evaluating several promising working fluids with potential for good long-term performance. Modeling suggests that the volumetric solar receiver will improve the solar to thermal conversion efficiency by around 2% (absolute) over an SOA receiver.

The second key improvement is the use of a two-phase working fluid between the receiver outlet and brine heater. Ideally, the working fluid leaves the receiver with between a 50 and 70% void fraction, allowing it to efficiently absorb incident radiation along the entire length of the receiver. By storing thermal energy in the latent heat of the working fluid, the same quantity of thermal energy can be transferred at a reduced working fluid temperature and flow rate. This lower operating temperature reduces thermal losses to the ambient between the receiver and brine heater. Condensing flow within the brine heater also allows for a reduction in heat exchanger area as the condensing heat transfer rate is improved relative to that of a single-phase working fluid.

The final improvement (and focus of this paper) is due to the potential for the two-phase system to operate as a loop thermosyphon (LTS). A loop thermosyphon utilizes the density difference between a two-phase riser and condensate downcomer to provide fluid circulation without a pump. Preliminary thermo-economic modeling suggests that eliminating the pump reduces lifetime levelized capital, operating, and maintenance costs by about 19%.

Josh Charles1, a), Nathan Van Velson1, b), Jianjian Wang1, c), Sean Hoenig1, d)

1Advanced Cooling Technologies, 1046 New Holland Ave., Lancaster, PA 17601, USA, 1-717-295-6061

Loop Thermosyphon Theory

A loop thermosyphon is a specialized configuration of a single-tube thermosyphon. In a thermosyphon, a working fluid absorbs heat and boils in an evaporative region. Evaporated vapor buoyantly rises along the tube to the condenser, where it condenses, releasing thermal energy. Condensed liquid returns to the evaporator via gravity, falling along the walls of the thermosyphon counter-current to the vapor flow. The operation of a traditional thermosyphon is illustrated in Fig. 2 (Left). The flooding limit constrains the maximum power of a thermosyphon, and is imposed by shear forces between a high-velocity, upward vapor flow and downward liquid return flow.

FIGURE 2. (Left) Traditional Thermosyphon Operation vs. (Right)Loop Thermosyphon Operation.

The flooding limit can be bypassed by using a loop thermosyphon. LTS operation is illustrated in Fig. 2 (Right). As in a traditional thermosyphon, heat applied in the evaporator zone boils the working fluid, which rises to the condenser. Unlike a traditional thermosyphon, when the working fluid is condensed, the liquid returns to the evaporator in a line separate from the rising vapor phase. With separate vapor and liquid lines, shear between the phases is eliminated, removing the flooding limit constraint. One feature of an LTS is that it is possible for a two-phase working fluid to flow against gravity from evaporator to condenser. In other words, liquid can be carried along with the vapor leaving the evaporator. The motive force required to lift this liquid is provided by the gravitational head of the liquid condensate beneath the condenser (ΔPg liq). Resisting this positive head is the gravitational head of the two-phase flow (ΔPg 2ϕ) and frictional pressure drops in the liquid (ΔPf liq) and two-phase lines (ΔPf 2ϕ). In addition, the sum of acceleration (ΣΔPa) and minor pressure losses (ΣΔPm) also resist the fluid flow and must be accounted for. During steady-state loop thermosyphon operation, these six pressure components must be in equilibrium:

Equation (1)

Equation (1) forms the basis for modeling of LTS performance and can be applied a wide range of LTS geometries, working fluids, and input powers. By predicting gravitational, frictional and acceleration pressure drops around an LTS, the model can predict changes in the saturation temperature, which directly influence the working fluid thermal resistance between the evaporator and condenser.

Loop Thermosyphon Model Design

Beginning from the pressure balance principle of Eqn. (1), a numeric mass and energy balance model of the solar-driven LTS was created. Within the code, the LTS is initially divided into discrete sections for sequential analysis. The following four types of sections were defined within the model: evaporator sections, condenser sections, tube sections, and elbows. An example of this loop thermosyphon discretization is illustrated in Fig. 3 alongside critical dimensions and fluid operating parameters defined and calculated by the model.

 

FIGURE 3. Illustration of LTS Model Discretization and Important Calculation Dimensions and Parameters.

DIMENSIONS
ID: Inner Diameter
OD: Outer Diameter
L: Length
A: Cross-sectional Area
θ: Tube Inclination (relative to positive x-axis)
r: Elbow Radius
BASE FLUID PARAMETERS
h: Enthalpy
P: Pressure
DERIVATIVE FLUID PARAMETERS
T: Temperature
ρ: Density
μ: Viscosity
σ: Surface Tension
CALCULATED FLUID PARAMETERS
ΔPf: Frictional Pressure Drop
ΔPg: Gravitational Head
ΔPa: Acceleration Pressure Drop
ΔPm: Minor Pressure Losses
α: Void Fraction
hc Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient

Model execution begins by specifying a saturation temperature, operating temperature (if superheated or subcooled), and fluid quality, which define the enthalpy and pressure at the inlet or outlet of the starting section. Beginning from this point of the loop, a heat and mass balance is serially performed alongside a pressure drop analysis for each section of the loop. The fluid flow is fully defined by only two “base” parameters; enthalpy and pressure. The model iterates on these two parameters with temperature, density, viscosity, and surface tension derived from the pressure and enthalpy values in each section.

Frictional Pressure Drop Calculations

As suggested by Eqn. (1), accurate calculation of the loop pressure drops is essential in predicting the performance of the LTS. In sections with single-phase liquid or vapor (i.e. in the downcomer), frictional pressure drop is calculated using the standard Darcy frictional factor equation for tubular flow. However, in the evaporator, two-phase riser, and condenser, empirically derived, two-phase pressure drop correlations are most applicable.

 

Equation (2)

Lockhart and Martinelli (L-M) [i] proposed that the two-phase frictional pressure drop per unit length (dPf / dz)2ϕ be estimated by multiplying the single-phase frictional pressure drop for the liquid phase (dPf / dz)liq by a two-phase frictional pressure drop multiplier (ϕliq):

 

Equation (3)

The two-phase frictional pressure drop multiplier is a function of the Lockhart and Martinelli parameter (XLM) and a C value (Table 1)

TABLE 1. C Values for the L-M Correlation [ii]

Equation (4)

The XLM parameter is defined as the ratio of the pressure drops if the liquid and vapor flow rates are individually filling the entire flow cross section:

 

The single-phase pressure drops are calculated using the single-phase Darcy pressure drop equation for liquid or vapor flow:

Equation (5)

Equation (6)

 

 

 

Where, G is the mass velocity (ṁ/A) of the entire flow, x is the quality, and dh is the hydraulic diameter. A transition Reynolds number of 2,300 was assumed in calculating the laminar and turbulent friction factors:

Equation (7)

Equation (8)

 

 

 

Finally, Reynolds numbers for the liquid and vapor portion of the flow are calculated using the mass velocity and quality according to Equations (9) and (10):

Equation (9)

Equation (10)

 

 

 

Equations (2) through (10) are used by the model to predict the two-phase frictional pressure drop. The C values presented by Chisholm in Table 1 only apply to horizontal, tubular two-phase flow. Yadav expanded on this work, by studying fully-turbulent, vertical upward and downward two-phase flows, with appropriate C values for both cases proposed [iii]. A linear curve fit between Chisholm’s horizontal C values (0°) and Yadav’s values for ±90° was used to create an equation for the turbulent liquid-turbulent vapor (tl-tv) C value at any tube inclination (θ):

For θ between 0 and 90°:

Equation (11)

For θ between 270 and 360°:

Equation (12)

Where, θ is in degrees. In addition to the L-M correlation, the Friedel two-phase frictional pressure drop correlation was also implemented in the model. The correlation used is user-selectable in the model user interface. Complete details of the Friedel correlation are outlined by Filip et al. [iv].

 

Equation (13)

An accurate prediction of void fraction (α) throughout the two-phase flow is critical to accurate estimations of fluid charge. Several user-selectable methods for estimating void fraction in the two-phase region were implemented in the model. These include Lockhart and Martinelli’s method based on the previously defined XLM parameter:

Heat Transfer Calculations

To estimate thermal losses from the thermosyphon and better predict heat transfer within the evaporator and condenser, heat transfer coefficients were calculated throughout the single and two-phase sections of the loop. Within the evaporator, a correlation developed by Kandlikar was used to predict the saturated flow boiling heat transfer coefficient (h2ϕb). This boiling heat transfer coefficient is a function of the convective (Co) and boiling (Bo) numbers, the single-phase liquid heat transfer coefficient (hliq), a fluid parameters (Ffl), the liquid only Froude number (FrLO), and five constants (C1C5):

Equation (14)

The calculation of these values is beyond the scope of this paper, but complete details are presented by Kandlikar [v]. In the non-boiling, two-phase region, Chen’s modified form of the Dittus-Boelter equation is used to calculate the two-phase heat transfer coefficient (h) [vi]:

Equation (15)

Where, Rem is the homogeneous mixture Reynolds number. For loop thermosyphon sections in the condenser, the Shah correlation was chosen to approximate the condensing heat transfer coefficient. As presented by Papini et al. [vii], the local, two-phase condensing heat transfer coefficient (h2ϕc) can be computed by another Dittus-Boelter-based correlation:

Equation (16)

Shah’s correlation, presented in Eqn. (16), is applicable to vertical, inclined, and horizontal condensers. After solving for the heat transfer coefficient around the loop thermosyphon, heat loss from each section is estimated using a sum of thermal resistance method through the tube wall and an insulation layer surrounding the tube.

Lab-Scale Solar Thermal Collector

FIGURE 4. (Left) Model Illustration of Lab-Scale Solar LTS, (Right) Constructed Lab-Scale Solar LTS.

The pressure drop and heat transfer model was used to model a lab-scale version of the loop thermosyphon for concentrated solar desalination. The geometry of this model is illustrated in Fig. 4 (Left). A 0.5 m horizontal evaporator was located ~0.3 m below the midpoint of the condenser. 15.7 mm ID tubing was used throughout, with a constriction to 8 mm through the flow meter located in the liquid return line.

Before constructing the lab-scale prototype [Fig. 4 (Right)], the model was used to verify system performance at evaporator powers between 200 and 900 W and saturation temperatures of 100, 110, and 120°C. The predicted flow rate and evaporator exit void fraction for these conditions are presented in Fig. 5 (Left).

FIGURE 5. (a) Mass Flow Rates and (b) Key Pressure Drops Calculated by Model for Lab-Scale System.

Figure 5 (Left) shows that at each operating temperature, flow rate initially increases with power before peaking and falling at powers greater than 300-400 W. Void fraction rapidly increases at powers less than ~400 W, but the curve flattens at higher powers. To better understand the peak in mass flow rate at 300-400 W, the gravitational head and frictional pressure drops for the two-phase riser (Up) and liquid phase downcomer (Down) are presented in Fig. 5 (Right) for a 120°C working fluid. At powers less than 300-400 W, Fig. 5 (Right) shows that the gravitational head of the two-phase riser is the dominant pressure drop opposing the driving liquid head of the downcomer. This is due to the low void fraction at low powers. As power increases from 200 W, the two-phase void fraction rapidly increases, driving the two-phase head down. This rapid decrease in two-phase head is responsible for the initial increase in flow rate with increasing power. However, as power and two-phase void fraction continue to rise, the two-phase frictional pressure drop begins to increase. Eventually, the decrease in two-phase head is completely offset by the increase in two-phase frictional pressure drop and this point corresponds to the peak mass flow rate seen in Fig. 5 (Left).

FIGURE 6. Experimental vs. Modeled Mass Flow Rate Results for Lab-Scale LTS.

The lab-scale system presented in Fig. 4 (Right) was fabricated from copper tubing with heat supplied by four cartridge heaters fitting into aluminum blocks clamped around the evaporative section of the loop. The condenser was similarly constructed with two aluminum blocks clamped around the LTS tube and two parallel coolant tubes. Chilled water was supplied to the condenser via a chiller, with a flow meter and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) used to quantify the thermal energy removed in the condenser. LTS temperatures were recorded via RTDs located at the entrance of the condenser and bottom of the downcomer, with pressure at the bottom of the downcomer measured via an absolute pressure transducer. An electromagnetic flow meter was located in the liquid return line to record the working fluid flow rate. The system was leak tested under vacuum before being charged with between 650 and 850 ml of deionized water. Evaporator power was varied between 500 and 1,000 W with the coolant flow rate controlled such that the LTS saturation temperature was held constant. Experimental mass flow rate (Exp.) is plotted vs. power for the three experimental fluid charges in Fig. 6.

As expected, mass flow rate was found to directly correlate with charge. A greater fluid charge corresponds to a greater liquid head in the downcomer, increasing the working fluid motive force and resulting flow rate. Modeled flow rate results (Mod.) for the lab-scale system are presented alongside the experimental data in Fig. 6. Experimental and modeled results were found to agree very well at charges of 650 and 750 ml. At 850 ml, a maximum difference of ~20% was found between the experimental and modeled mass flow rates. This is within the typical uncertainty range of the two-phase pressure drop correlations used in the model. Importantly, the results in Fig. 6 show that the trend of increasing flow rate with increasing charge is accurately predicted by the model.

Conclusions & Next Steps

This work shows that the new two-phase LTS model can predict the performance of the solar desalination LTS under development. While a maximum mass flow rate difference of ~20% was found between the experimental and model results, this is within the prediction uncertainty of the two-phase Lockhart and Martinelli pressure drop correlation used in the model. One limitation of the current lab-scale LTS is that it only allowed for accurate mass flow rate comparison with the model due to limited temperature and pressure instrumentation. To address this issue, a larger, sub-scale LTS is under construction with complete temperature and pressure instrumentation at the inlet and outlet of the evaporator and condenser. This system will allow for comparison of flow rate, temperature, and sectional pressure drops between the experiment and model. The larger tube diameter and system size will also allow the model to be validated across a broader range of system sizes and operating parameters.

Acknowledgments

This work was performed for the Solar Energy Technology Office (SETO) under contract number DE-EE000839. The technical monitor is Mark Lausten. The authors would like to acknowledge Phil Texter, Julian Lorah, and Larry Waltman for their assistance in the design, assembly and testing of the lab-scale loop thermosyphon.

REFERENCES

[i] W. Lockhart and R. C. Martinelli, “Proposed Correlation of Data for Isothermal Two-Phase Two-Component Flow in Pipes,” in Chemical Engineering Progress,45(1), 1949, pp. 39-48.
[ii] Chisholm, “A Theoretical Basis for the Lockhart-Martinelli Correlation for Two-Phase Flow,” in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 10, 1967, pp. 1767-1778.
[iii] S. Yadav, “Interfacial Area Transport Across Vertical Elbows in Air-Water Two-Phase Flow,” PhD thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 2013.
[iv] Filip and R. D. Bӑltӑreҭu, “Comparison of Two-Phase Pressure Drop Models for Condensing Flows in Horizontal Tubes.” in Mathematical Modeling in Civil Engineering, 10(4), 2014, pp. 19-27.
[v] G. Kandlikar, “A General Correlation for Saturated Two-Phase Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Inside Horizontal and Vertical Tubes,” in Journal of Heat Transfer, 112, 1990, pp. 219-228.
[vi] C. Chen, “A Correlation for Boiling Heat Transfer to Saturated Fluids in Convective Flow,” Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1962.
[vii] Papini, A. Cammi, “Modelling of Heat Transfer Phenomena for Vertical and Horizontal Configurations of In-Pool Condensers and Comparison with Experimental Findings,” in Science and Technology of Nuclear Installation, 2010.

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Mohammed Ababneh, et al., 19th International Heat Pipe Conference, Pisa, Italy, June 10-14, 2018

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Loop Heat Pipe Wick Fabrication via Additive Manufacturing

Bradley Richard, et al., 19th International Heat Pipe Conference, Pisa, Italy, June 10-14, 2018

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Meshless Computational tools for Fatigue Damage and Failure Modeling

Srujan Rokkam et al., ITHERM 2018 (17th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems), San Diego, CA, May 29 – June 1

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Thermal Management Technologies for Embedded Cooling Applications

Andy Slippey et al., ITHERM 2018 (17th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems), San Diego, CA, May 29 – June 1

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Experimental Investigation of Gravity-Driven Two-Phase Cooling for Power Electronics Applications

Devin Pellicone, PCIM 2018, Nuremberg, Germany, June 5-7, 2018.

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Experimental, Numerical and Analytic Study of Unconstrained Melting in a Vertical Cylinder with a Focus on Mushy Region Effects

Chunjian Pan,⇑, Joshua Charles, Natasha Vermaak, Carlos Romero, Sudhakar Neti, Energy Research Center, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA Ying Zheng, Chien-Hua Chen, Richard Bonner III, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., Lancaster, PA 17601, USA International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Accepted 2 April 2018

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A Non-Thermal Gliding Arc Plasma Reformer for Syngas Production

Howard Pearlman, 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018

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An Innovative Volatile Organic Compound Incinerator

Joel Crawmer et al., International Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT3), Houston, TX, March 6-8 2018

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Developing High-Temperature Water-Repellent Glass Fibers Through Atomic Layer Deposition

Mohammad Reza Shaeri et al., 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018.

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Dropwise Condensation on Hydrophobic Microporous Powder and the Transition to Intrapowder Droplet Removal

Sean Hoenig and Richard W. Bonner, III, 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018.

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The Key Role of Pumping Power in Active Cooling Systems

Mohammed Reza Shaeri, 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018.

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Nucleating agent enhanced thermal desalination at the triple point

Fangyu Cao et al., 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018

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Titanium Water Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power Cooling

Kuan-Lin Lee et al. ANS NETS 2018 – Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space Las Vegas, NV, February 26 – March 1, 2018

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Dropwise Condensation on Superhydrophobic Microporous Wick Structures

Sean Hoenig, Richard Bonner, Ph.D., ASME doi:10.1115/1.4038854 History: Received April 28, 2017; Revised December 06, 2017

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A Peridynamics-FEM Approach for Crack Path Prediction in Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Srujan Rokkam et al., 2018 AIAA SciTech Forum, Kissimmee, FL, January 8-12, 2018.

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Vapor chambers with hydrophobic and biphilic evaporators in moderate to high heat flux applications

Mohammad Reza Shaeri, Daniel Attinger, Richard W. Bonner III, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 130(5), Pages 83-92, February 2018

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Model-Based Dynamic Control of Active Thermal Management System

ASME 2017 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition IMECE 2017 - 71918, November 3-9, 2017 Tampa, FL. Nathan Van Velson, Srujan Rokkam, Quang Truong, Bryan Rasmussen

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Efficient optimization of a longitudinal finned heat pipe structure for a latent thermal energy storage system

Sean Hoenig et al., Energy Conversion and Management, 153, pp. 93-105, 2017.

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The Electroneutrality Constraint in Nonlocal Models

Eitan Lees, Srujan Rokkam, Sachin Shanbhag, and Max Gunzburger. Journal of Chemical Physics 147, 124102 (2017)

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Heat Pipe Embedded Thermoelectric Generator for Diesel Generator Set Waste Heat Recovery

James Schmidt and Mohammed Ababneh. 14th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum, (AIAA 2016-4605)

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Efficient Modeling of Phase Change Material Solidification with Multidimensional Fins

C. Pan et al., International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 115, Part A, pp. 897-909, December 2017.

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Integrated Vapor Chamber Heat Spreader for Power Module Applications

Clayton Hose et al., InterPACK 2017, San Francisco, CA, August 29 – September 1, 2017

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Heat transfer and pressure drop in laterally perforated-finned heat sinks across different flow regimes

Mohammad Reza Shaeri, Richard Bonner Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., Lancaster, PA 17601, United States , Available online 24 August 2017

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Feasibility Study of a Vapor Chamber with a Hydrophobic Evaporator Substrate in High Heat Flux Applications

Mohammad Reza Shaeria et al., International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 86, pp. 199–205, 2017.

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Effect of Perforation Size to Perforation Spacing on Heat Transfer in Laterally Perforated-Finned Heat Sinks

Mohammed Reza Shaeri, and Richard W. Bonner III, ASME 2017 Summer Heat Transfer Conference (HT2017), July 9-14, 2017, Bellevue, Washington, USA

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Two-Phase Heat Exchanger with Thermal Storage Capability for Space Thermal Control System

Two-Phase Heat Exchanger with Thermal Storage Capability for Space Thermal Control System, Kuan-Lin Lee, et al. 47th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2017), July 16-20, 2017, Charleston, South Carolina

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Advanced Passive Thermal Experiment for Hybrid Variable Conductance Heat Pipes and HiK™ Plates on the International Space Station

Advanced Passive Thermal Experiment for Hybrid Variable Conductance Heat Pipes and HiK™ Plates on the International Space Station, Mohammed T. Ababneh, et al. 47th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2017), July 16-20, 2017, Charleston, South Carolina

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LHP Wick Fabrication via Additive Manufacturing

LHP Wick Fabrication via Additive Manufacturing. Bradley Richard, et al. 47th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2017), July 16-20, 2017, Charleston, South Carolina

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High Temperature Water Heat Pipes for Kilopower System

Derek Beard et al., IECEC – AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition (AIAA Propulsion and Energy 2017), July 10-12, Atlanta, Georgia

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Sodium Heat Pipes for Space and Surface Fission Power

Derek Beard, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, IECEC – AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition (AIAA Propulsion and Energy 2017), July 10-12, Atlanta, Georgia

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Laminar Forced Convection Heat Transfer From Laterally Perforated-Finned Heat Sinks

Mohammad Reza Shaeri and Richard W. Bonner III, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 116, pp. 406-418, April 2017.

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An Innovative Volatile Organic Compound Incinerator

Joel Crawmer et al., 10th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, College Park, MD, April 23-26, 2017

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A Swiss Roll Style Combustion Reactor for Non-Catalytic Reforming

Ryan Zelinsky et al., 10th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, College Park, MD, April 23-26, 2017

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Thermal Resistance Network Model for Heat Pipe-PCM Based Cool Storage System

Sean Hoenig et al., 2nd Thermal and Fluid Engineering Conference (TFEC2017), Las Vegas, NV, April 2-5 2017.

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Development of Low Cost Radiator for Surface Fission Power

Calin Tarau et al., International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Salt Lake City, UT, July 25-27, 2016

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Generation of amorphous carbon models using liquid quench method: A reactive molecular dynamics study.

Raghavan Ranganathan, Srujan Rokkam, Tapan Desai, Pawel Keblinski Carbon, Volume 113, March 2017, Pages 87–99

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Self-Venting Arterial Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Applications

Derek Beard, William G. Anderson, and Calin Tarau, International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Salt Lake City, UT, July 25-27, 2016

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Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al., International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) 2016, Vienna. Austria, July 11-14, 2016

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Development of a Pumped Two-phase System for Spacecraft Thermal Control

Michael C. Ellis and Richard C. Kurwitz, International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) 2016, Vienna. Austria, July 11-14, 2016

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Vapor Chamber with Phase Change Material-Based Wick Structure

James Yun, Calin Tarau, and Nathan Van Velson, International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) 2016, Vienna. Austria, July 11-14, 2016

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A Novel Closed System, Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Design for High Stability Isothermal Furnace Liner Applications

Taylor Maxwell et al., 13th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science (TEMPMEKO 2016), Zakopane, Poland, June 26 – July 1, 2016

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Thermal Enhancements for Separable Thermal Mechanical Interfaces

James Schmidt et al., AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Washington, D.C., June 13-17, 2016

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The Design of a Split Loop Thermosyphon Heat Exchanger for Use in HVAC Applications

Daniel Reist et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Hot Reservoir Stainless-Methanol Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Constant Evaporator Temperature in Varying Ambient Conditions

Jens Weyant et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Hybrid Variable and Constant Conductance Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Environments and High Heat Flux Space Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Self-Venting Arterial Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Applications

William G. Anderson et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Performance Life Testing of a Nanoscale Coating for Erosion and Corrosion Protection in Copper Microchannel Coolers

Nathan Van Velson and Matt Flannery, IEEE ITherm Conference, May 31-June 3, 2016, Las Vegas, NV

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Heat Pipes used as Heat Flux Transformers and for Remote Heat Rejection

Devin Pellicone and Jens Weyant, PCIM Europe 2016, Nuremberg, Germany, May 10-12, 2016

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Enhanced Filmwise Condensation with Thin Porous Coating

Ying Zheng, Chien-Hua Chen, Howard Pearlman, Richard Bonner, First Pacific Rim Thermal Engineering Conference, PRTEC, March 13-17, 2016, Hawaii's Big Island, USA.

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Optimized Alkali Metal Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

Calin Tarau, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS) 2016, Huntsville, AL, February 22-25, 2016.

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Status of the Development of Low Cost Radiator for Surface Fission Power II

Calin Tarau, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS) 2016, Huntsville, AL, February 22-25, 2016.

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Passivation and Stabilization of Aluminum Nanoparticles for Energetic Materials

Matthew Flannery, Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2015, Received 17 June 2015; Accepted 13 October 2015

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Modeling high-temperature diffusion of gases in micro and mesoporous amorphous carbon

Raghavan Ranganathan, Srujan Rokkam, Tapan Desai, Pawel Keblinski, Peter Cross, and Richard Burnes, The Journal of Chemical Physics 143, 084701 (2015).

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Optimized Heat Pipe Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

Carl L. Schwendeman, Calin Tarau, Nicholas A. Schifer, John Polak, and William G. Anderson, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Status of the Low-Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

Taylor Maxwell, Calin Tarau, William G. Anderson, Scott Garner, Matthew Wrosch, and Maxwell H. Briggs, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Water-Titanium Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Fission Power

Rebecca Hay and William G. Anderson, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Two-Phase Thermal Switch for Spacecraft Passive Thermal Management

Nathan Van Velson, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Multiple Loop Heat Pipe Radiator for Variable Heat Rejection in Future Spacecraft

Nathan Van Velson, Calin Tarau, Mike DeChristopher, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Hybrid Heat Pipes for Planetary Surface and High Heat Flux Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Experimental Investigation on the Thermal and Hydraulic Performance of Alumina–Water Nanofluids in Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plates

Ehsan Yakhshi-Tafti, Sanjida Tamanna and Howard Pearlman, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 137, July 1, 2015

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A “Swiss-Roll” Fuel Reformer: Experiments and Modeling

Chien-Hua Chen, Bradley Richard, Ying Zheng, Howard Pearlman, Shrey Trivedi, Srusti Koli, Andrew Lawson, and Paul Ronney, “A “Swiss-Roll” Fuel Reformer: Experiments and Modeling,” 9th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, May 17-20, 2015.

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Effect of Porous Coating on Condensation Heat Transfer

Ying Zheng, Chien-hua Chen, Howard Pearlman, Matt Flannery and Richard Bonner. 9th International Conference on Boiling and Condensation Heat Transfer, April 26-30, 2015, Boulder, Colorado.

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High Temperature Water-Titanium Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Fission Power

Rebecca Hay and William G. Anderson, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2015), Albuquerque, NM, February 23-26, 2015.

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Nanoscale Coating for Microchannel Cooler Protection in High Powered Laser Diodes

Tapan Desai, Matthew Flannery, Nathan Van Velson, and Philip Griffin, “Nanoscale Coating for Microchannel Cooler Protection in High Powered Laser Diodes,” Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM 2015), San Jose, CA, March 16-19, 2015.

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Fuel-Flexible Hybrid Solar Coal Gasification Reactor

M. Flannery et al., "Fuel-Flexible Hybrid Solar Coal Gasification Reactor," 2014 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, October 6 - 9, 2014.

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Heat Pipe Embedded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Enclosures for Avionics Thermal Management

Andrew Slippey, Michael C. Ellis, Bruce Conway, and Hyo Chang Yun. SAE 2014 Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference, Cincinnati, OH, September 23-25, 2014.

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Passive Thermal Management for Avionics in High Temperature Environments

Michael C. Ellis, William G. Anderson, and Jared R. Montgomery. SAE 2014 Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference, Cincinnati, OH, September 23-25, 2014.

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Passivation of Aluminum Nanoparticles by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energetic Nanomaterials

T. Desai et al., ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces Journal, 2014, 6 (10), pp. 7942–7947, DOI: 10.1021/am5012707

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Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes

Ababneh, Mohammed T., Shakti Chauhan, Pramod Chamarthy, and Frank M. Gerner. "Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes." Journal of Heat Transfer 136, no. 11 (2014): 112901.

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Launch Vehicle Avionics Passive Thermal Management

W. G. Anderson et al., “Launch Vehicle Avionics Passive Thermal Management,” 44th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2014), Tucson, AZ, July 13-17, 2014.

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Low Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

Taylor Maxwell et al, 12th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, OH, July 28-30, 2014.

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Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Subcooled and Saturated Refrigerants in Minichannel Heat Sinks

E. Yakhshi-Tafti et al., ASME 2014 4th Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting and 12th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, August 3-7, 2014, Chicago, IL.

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Thermal-Fluid Modeling for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes

M. T. Ababneh et al., published in the AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 270-278, April 2014.

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Thermoelectric Performance Model Development and Validation for a Selection and Design Tool

Thomas Nunnally, Devin Pellicone, Nathan Van Velson, James Schmidt, Tapan Desai, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014.

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High Heat Flux Heat Pipes Embedded in Metal Core Printed Circuit Boards for LED Thermal Management

Dan Pounds, Richard W. Bonner III, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014

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Enhancing Thermal Performance in Embedded Computing for Ruggedized Military and Avionics Applications

Darren Campo, Jens Weyant, Bryan Muzyka, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014.

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A Corrosion and Erosion Protection Coating for Complex Microchannel Coolers used in High Power Laser Diodes

Tapan G. Desai, Matthew Flannery, Angie Fan, Jens Weyant, Henry Eppich, Keith Lang, Richard Chin, and Aland Chin, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014

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The Thermal Conductivity of Clustered Nanocolloids

T. Desai et al., APL Materials, 2, 066102 (2014); doi: 10.1063/1.4880975. 21 May 2014;

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Diffuse interface modeling of void growth in irradiated materials. Mathematical, thermodynamic and atomistic perspectives

Anter El-Azab Karim Ahmed, Srujan Rokkam, Thomas Hochrainer, Published in Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science (COSSMS), Vol. 18, pg. 90-98, 2014.

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Effect of Crosslink Formation on Heat Conduction in Amorphous Polymers

Gota Kikugawa, Tapan G. Desai, et al., Journal of Applied Physics 114, published online July 16, 2013

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Cooling of Stirling Convertor and General Purpose Heat Source

Calin Tarau, et al.,11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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High Temperature Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power

Kara L. Walker, et al.,11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator for Lunar Fission Power Systems

William G. Anderson, et al., 11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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Ammonia and Propylene Loop Heat Pipes with Thermal Control Valves – Thermal/Vacuum and Freeze/Thaw Testing

Kara Walker, et al., 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2013), Vail, CO, July 14-18, 2013.

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Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Life Tests and Analyses

W. G. Anderson, et al., 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2013), Vail, CO, July 14-18, 2013

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Correlation for dropwise condensation heat transfer: Water, organic fluids, and inclination

Richard W. Bonner III, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 61, June 2013, Pages 245-253

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A Non-Catalytic Fuel-Flexible Reformer

Chien-Hua Chen, et al., 8th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, hosted by the University of Utah, May 19-22, 2013

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Planar vapor chamber with hybrid evaporator wicks for the thermal management of high-heat-flux and high-power optoelectronic devices

P. Dussinger et al., International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 60, pp. 163–169, May 2013.

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Variable Conductance Thermal Management System for Balloon Payloads

Calin Tarau and William G. Anderson, 20th AIAA Lighter-Than-Air Systems Technology Conference, Daytona Beach, FL, March, 25-28, 2013

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Preliminary First Principle Based Electro-thermal Coupled Solver for Silicon Carbide Power Devices

Angie Fan et al., 29th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium, San Jose, CA, March 17-21, 2013

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Trade Study for Lunar Fission Power Systems

William G. Anderson, Bryan J. Muzyka, and John R. Hartenstine, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems – Experimental Results

Carl Schwendeman, Calin Tarau, William G. Anderson, and Peggy A. Cornell, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Alkali Metal Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power

Kara L. Walker, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Syngas Production by Thermochemical Conversion of CO2 and H2O Using a High-Temperature Heat Pipe Based Reactor

H. Pearlman and Chien-Hua Chen, SPIE Solar Hydrogen and Nanotechnology VII, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8469 San Diego, CA, August 12-14, 2012.

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Diode Heat Pipes for Venus Landers

Calin Tarau et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2012.

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Long-Lived Venus Lander Thermal Management System Design

Rebecca Hay et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Atlanta, GA, July 30 July-August 1, 2012.

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Variable Thermal Links

W. G. Anderson et al., 42nd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2012), San Diego, CA, July 15-19, 2012.

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Applications

W. G. Anderson et al., 16th International Heat Pipe Conference, Lyon, France, May 20-24, 2012.

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The Effect of Device Level Modeling on System-Level Thermal Predictions

Jens Weyant, et al., ITherm, San Diego, CA, May 30, 2012,

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Integration of a Phase Change Material for Junction-Level Cooling in GaN Devices

Daniel Piedra, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2012

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An Innovative Passive Cooling Method for High Performance Light-emitting Diodes

Angie Fan, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2012

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Ultra High Temperature Isothermal Furnace Liners (IFLs) For Copper Freeze Point Cells

Peter Dussinger and John Tavener, 9th International Temperature Symposium, Anaheim, CA, March 2012

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High Heat Flux, High Power, Low Resistance, Low CTE Two-Phase Thermal Ground Planes for Direct Die Attach Applications

Peter Dussinger, et al., GOMACTech 2012, Las Vegas, Nevada, March 2012

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Passive Control of a Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Lunar Lander Application

K. L. Walker et al., 42nd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2012), San Diego, CA, July 15-19, 2012.

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A Computational Model of a Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger in a Vapor Compression System with a Large Pulsed Heat Load

G. Troszak and X. Tang, Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Puerto Rico, July 8-12, 2012.

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2-D Simulation of Hot Electron-Phonon Interactions in a Submicron Gallium Nitride Device Using Hydrodynamic Transport Approach

Angie Fan et al., ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Puerto Rico, USA , July 8-12, 2012

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Novel Junction Level Cooling in Pulsed GaN Devices

Tapan G. Desai, et al., ITherm, San Diego, CA, May 30, 2012,

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Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Life Tests

W. G. Anderson, et al., 16th International Heat Pipe Conference, Lyon, France, May 20-24, 2012.

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Passivation Coatings for Micro-channel Coolers

Richard W. Bonner III, Jens Weyant, Evan Fleming, Kevin Lu, Daniel Reist, APEC 2012, Orlando FL, February 1, 2012

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Regolith Oxygen Production with Multiple Reactors

John Hartenstine, et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2011

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Thermal Management System for Long-Lived Venus Landers

Calin Tarau, et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2011

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes

William Anderson, et al., 41st International Conference on Environmental Systems, Portland, OR, July 17-21, 2011

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for a Lunar Variable Thermal Link

Chris Peters, et al., 41st International Conference on Environmental Systems, Portland, OR, July 17-21, 2011

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Two-Phase Heat Sinks with Microporous Coating

T. Semenic and S. M. You, 9th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, Edmonton, CA, June 19-22, 2011

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Die Level Thermal Storage for Improved Cooling of Pulsed Devices

Richard Bonner III, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA., March 2011

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A 2-D Numerical Study of Microscale Phase Change Material Thermal Storage for GaN Transistor Thermal Management

Xudong Tang, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2011

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Dynamic Response of Phenolic Resin and Its Carbon-nanotube Composites to Shock Wave Loading

Arman, et. al., Journal of Applied Physics, 109, 013503 (2011)

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Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Variable Thermal Conductance Link of Lunar Landers and Rovers

Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Variable Thermal Conductance Link of Lunar Landers and Rovers, J. R. Hartenstine et al., 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, FL, January 4-7, 2011.

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Electronics Cooling Using High Temperature Loop Heat Pipes with Multiple Condensers

William G. Anderson, et al., SAE Power Systems Conference, Ft. Worth, TX, November 2010

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Development of Heat Pipe Loop Technology for Military Vehicle Electronics Cooling

Xudong Tang et al., NDIA Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering and Technology Symposium, Dearborn, Michigan, August 2010

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Dropwise Condensation Life Testing of Self Assembled Monolayers

Richard Bonner III, IHTC14, Washington, DC, August 2010

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Heat and Mass Transfer in a Permeable Fabric system Under Hot Air Jet Impingement,

Sangsoo Lee et. al., International Heat Transfer Conference (IHTC14), Washington, DC, August, 2010

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Variable Thermal Conductance Link for Lunar Landers and Rovers

William G Anderson et. al., IECEC, Nashville, Tennessee, July, 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems – Design and Experimental Results

Calin Tarau and William G Anderson, IECEC, Nashville, Tennessee, July, 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe with Carbon-Carbon Radiator for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau and William G. Anderson, 15th International Heat Pipe Conference, Clemson, SC, April 2010

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Low-Temperature, Dual Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith

Kara Walker et al., 15th International Heat Pipe Conference, Clemson, South Carolina, April, 2010

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes

William G. Anderson, John R. Hartenstine, David B. Sarraf, and Calin Tarau, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., Pennsylvania, 15th International Heat Pipe Conference (15th IHPC) Clemson, USA, April 25-30, 2010.

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Dropwise Condensation in Vapor Chambers

Richard Bonner, 26th IEEE Semi-Therm Symposium, Santa Clara, California, February 2010

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Sodium VCHP with Carbon-Carbon Radiator for Radioisotope Stirling Systems,

Calin Tarau, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Laurel, Maryland, February 2010

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Advanced VCS Evaporators for Lunar Lander and Lunar Habitat Thermal Control Applications

Tadej Semenic, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Laurel, Maryland, February 2010

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Modeling Initial Stage of Phenolic Pyrolysis: Graphitic Precursor Formation and Interfacial Effects

Tapan Desai, et al., Polymer, 52, 2010

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Slip Behavior at Ionic Solid-fluid Interfaces

Tapan Desai, NDIA Chemical Physics Letters, 501, 2010, 93-97

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Roles of Atomic Restructuring in Interfacial Phonon Transport

Seungha Shin et. al., Physical Review B, 82, 081302 (2010)

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Anisotropic Shock Response of Columnar Nanocrystalline Cu

Sheng-Nian Luo et. al., Journal of Applied Physics , 107, 123507 (2010)

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Heat Pipe Embedded Alsic Plates for High Conductivity-Low CTE Heat Spreaders

J. Weyant, ITHERM 2010, Las Vegas NV,

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith

John R. Hartenstine, et al., AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, January 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., 7th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Denver Colorado, August 2009

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Loop Heat Pipe Design, Manufacturing and Testing – an Industrial Perspective

William Anderson, et al., ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Dropwise Condensation on Surfaces with Graded Hydrophobicity

Richard Bonner, ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Evaporators for High Temperature Lift Vapor Compression Loop for Space Applications

Tadej Semenic and Xudong Tang, ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiators for Lunar and Martian Environments

William Anderson, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production of Lunar Regolith

John Hartenstine, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Performance after Extended Periods of Freezing

Michael Ellis and William Anderson, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Loop Heat Pipe for TacSat-4

Peter Dussinger, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Advanced Thermal Management Technologies for High Power Automotive Equipment

Jon Zuo, et al., National Defense Industrial Association Ground Vehicle Power and Energy Workshop, Troy, Michigan, November 2008

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Vibration and Shock Tolerant Capillary Two-Phase Loop Technology for Vehicle Thermal Control

Xudong Tang and Chanwoo Park, 2008 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Jacksonville, Florida, August 2008

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NaK Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., 6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, Ohio, July 2008

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Heat Pipe Cooling of Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems

William Anderson, et al., 6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, Ohio, July 2008

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Startup Characteristics and Gravity Effects on a Medium/High-Lift Heat Pump Using Advanced Hybrid Loop Technology

Eric Sunada, et al., 38th SAE International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, California, June 2008

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High Temperature and High Heat Flux Thermal Management for Electronics

David Sarraf and William Anderson, IMAPS International Conference on High Temperature Electronics Conference (HiTEC 2008), Albuquerque, New Mexico, May 2008

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Heat Pipe Cooling of Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

William Anderson, et al., 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, San Diego, California, May 2008

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Local Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements of Flat Angled Sprays Using Thermal Test Vehicle

Richard Bonner, et al., 24th IEEE Semi-Therm Symposium, San Jose, California, March 2008

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe for Precise Temperature Control

David Sarraf, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Power Systems

John Hartenstine, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

William Anderson and Calin Tarau, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Vapor Compression Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology for Lunar Surface Applications

Chanwoo Park and Eric Sunada, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Experimental Study of Oscillating Flow Heat Transfer

Angie Fan, et al., Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer International Conference, Tainan, Taiwan, January 2008

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Metal Hydride Heat Storage Technology for Directed Energy Weapon Systems

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exhibition, Seattle, Washington, November 2007

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Electronics Thermal Management Using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2007 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Loop Thermosyphon Design for Cooling of Large Area, High Heat Flux Sources

John Hartenstine, et al., InterPACK 2007, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Heat Pipes for High Temperature Thermal Management

David Sarraf and William Anderson, InterPACK 2007, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes

William Anderson, 2007 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, St. Louis, MO, June 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests – Experiments

William Anderson, et al., 2007 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, St. Louis, MO, June 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests – Theory

Calin Tarau, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, NM, February 11 - 15, 2007.

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Spacecraft Thermal Management Using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, NM, February 11 - 15, 2007.

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Advanced Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for High Performance Thermal Management

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger with Two Levels of Isolation for Environmental Control of Manned Spacecraft Crew Compartment

David Sarraf, 37th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Norfolk, VA, July 17-20, 2006.

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Passive Thermal Management for a Fuel Cell Reforming Process

David Sarraf, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High Temperature Water-Titanium Heat Pipe Radiator

William Anderson, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High Temperature Titanium-Water and Monel-Water Heat Pipes

William Anderson, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High-Temperature Water Heat Pipes

David Sarraf and William Anderson, IMAPS International Conference on High Temperature Electronics, Santa Fe, NM, May 15 - 18, 2006

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High Performance Heat Storage and Dissipation Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE), Orlando, FL, November 5 - 11, 2005.

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Design and Testing of Titanium/Cesium and Titanium/Potassium Heat Pipes

Peter Dussinger, et al., 2005 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Francisco, CA, August 2005.

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High Temperature Lightweight Heat Pipe Panel Technology Development

Ted Stern and William Anderson, Space Nuclear Conference 2005, San Diego, CA, June 2005.

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Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Trade Study for the 300-550K Temperature Range

William Anderson and Walter Bienert, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2005

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Hybrid Loop Thermal Bus Technology for Vehicle Thermal Management

Chanwoo Park, et al., 24th Army Science Conference, Orlando, FL, November 29 - December 2, 2004

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