Vertical Surface Dropwise Condensation Heat Transfer Using Self-Healing Coatings

Sean H. Hoenig, Michael C. Ellis, Richard W. Bonner III
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. 1046 New Holland Ave. Lancaster, PA USA

ABSTRACT

In a traditional Rankine cycle, the condenser system for coal-fired power plants uses a pumped cooling water system to reject heat to a wet or dry cooling tower.  Heat rejection occurs in a shell and tube heat exchanger by filmwise condensation of low-pressure steam on steel, copper, or titanium.  The use of steam surface condensers typically results in low thermal performance on the steam-side due to the filmwise mode of condensation present on common material options.  The low thermal performance results in a substantial operation and maintenance cost.  To improve the thermal performance and durability of steam surface condensers, a self-healing, replenishable film-forming amine (FFA) coating deposited on the condenser tubing is proposed.  The FFA coating not only promotes efficient dropwise condensation on the condenser tubing but also protects the surface from oxidative corrosion.  To measure the thermal performance enhancement of these coatings, a custom test apparatus was used for flat plate condenser surfaces.  The initial results suggest improved thermal performance for several condenser materials.  Additional findings primarily suggest the affinity of the coating for the condenser material will affect the overall thermal performance enhancement, as well as secondary reasons, including constriction resistance and the coating concentration.  Further testing will confirm the self-healing benefits of these coatings.

Keywords

Dropwise Condensation; Self-Healing Coatings; Film-forming Amines; Power Plant Cooling

1 INTRODUCTION

Film-Forming Substances (FFS) are a family of coatings that are used primarily for corrosion protection of metal surfaces.  Film-forming amines (FFA) are a subset of this group of coatings that spontaneously form a molecular layer of short polymer chains with a distinct functional group [1].  This functional group, called the “head”, is an amine that is capable of forming a covalent chemical bond with the substrate surface material.  The other end, called the “tail”, is a long-chain hydrocarbon, engineered to have a desirable surface property such as ultra-low surface energy.  This is demonstrated in Figure 1.  The application of these coatings has been primarily used for oxidative corrosion resistance of metal surfaces, such as those used in steam evaporators and surface condensers for power plants [2,3,4].  Most blends of FFA coatings are non-wetting (i.e. hydrophobic) and promote efficient dropwise condensation.  This phenomenon occurs when the critical surface energy is appreciably lower than that of the surrounding fluid, which generates a finite wetting angle and low contact angle hysteresis.  With this mode of condensation, high thermal performance condenser surfaces can be realized with heat transfer coefficients as much as 5-20x higher than traditional filmwise condensation [5].  However, the application of FFA coatings for improved heat transfer is underdeveloped.

Figure 1: Film-forming amine coatings deposited on a metal or metal oxide surface.

Dropwise condensation on non-wetting surfaces has many applications in two-phase thermal managements technologies, including power plant steam condensers [6], vapor chambers [7], and heat pipes.  High heat transfer enhancement using dropwise condensation (DWC) has been of interest since the earliest published work in 1930, which reported an order of magnitude higher heat transfer coefficients compared to filmwise condensation for comparable conditions [8].  Although there are a multitude of different coating mechanisms to generate ultra-low surface energy, many issues remain to create a consistent, practical surface for industrial use.  One key issue includes poor coating lifetime [9].  To alleviate this problem, FFA coatings have been proposed as a self-healing, regenerative coating solution for steam surface condensers.  The hydrophobicity of the surface can be sustained over time due to oxidative corrosion protection with direct injection of additional FFA coating solution into a steam evaporator [10].  This concept is illustrated in Figure 2, with a more detailed configuration shown in Figure 3.

Figure 2: Application of FFA coatings to a steam surface condenser with a loop thermosyphon replacing a traditional pumped cooling water system to reject heat to a cooling tower.

This study specifically investigates the thermal performance benefits of using FFA coatings on smooth condenser surfaces for common engineering materials.  The condensation heat transfer coefficient is evaluated on copper, carbon steel, and stainless steel flat condenser surfaces using FFA and non-FFA, or neutralizing amine, coating solutions of PAS 6074.  The initial results indicate a consistent improvement in thermal performance using these coating solutions to generate dropwise condensation.  Corrosion protection of these surfaces have been realized with correct coating procedures.  Additional work is focused on sustaining long-term dropwise condensation on these surfaces using continuous coating injection and replenishment.

Figure 3: Detailed configuration of FFA coating applied to a steam surface condenser tube.

2 EXPERIMENTAL

Test samples were machined out of commercially available copper alloy 101, mild carbon steel 1018, and stainless steel 304.  These materials are most commonly used in steam surface condensers.  Figure 4 and Figure 5 provide an in-depth look at the details of the experimental apparatus.  The active condensing surface is a 5.59 cm by 2.03 cm area centered in the test block.  The material surfaces were first prepared using 1200 grit sandpaper to create a smooth, mirror finish.  The surfaces were then cleaned with acetone, deionized water, and finally dried with dry nitrogen gas.  The FFA coating was applied using an aqueous 6ppm solution of PAS 6074, where the active ingredient is octadecylamine with a blend of neutralizing amines.  The test blocks were submerged in a sealed bath of the solution for a 24-hour period and subsequently dried with dry nitrogen gas.  Each sample was tested for thermal performance in the experimental apparatus using the coating solution, which was injected following the use of a vacuum pump to evacuate the system.   Vapor was produced in the evaporator and driven by vapor pressure to the condensation chamber.  Following condensation of generated saturated vapor, liquid condensate drained from the condensation chamber to prevent buildup of a liquid pool.  The absolute pressure for each experimental test was held constant during data collection to achieve steady state, at approximately 120 kPa.  The non-condensable gas (NCG) chamber was pumped to vacuum pressure conditions to collect NCG and then used to purge the condensation chamber of any internal NCG buildup before data collection.  A thermocouple array was used to evaluate the surface temperature of the substrate for heat transfer calculations.  Thermal paste (DOW CORNING 340) was used to ensure precise thermal coupling of the thermocouples to the thermocouple wells.  Results were collected over a range of heat flux data by varying the cartridge heater input and water chiller output.  A transparent sight glass was incorporated to observe the dropwise condensation phenomenon.  Contact angle goniometry was completed before testing as a measure of promoter effectiveness.

Figure 4: The test setup, where the actual orientation is vertical (shown in inset) with the evaporator below the condensation chamber, showing its various components.

Conduction calorimetry was used to calculate heat flux and extrapolate the surface temperature during dropwise condensation.  Temperature measurements were acquired at several known locations within the test samples.  Linear regression was then used to determine the thermal gradients across the block and extrapolate the surface temperature during dropwise condensation.  The consistent linearity of this data confirms the use of this technique.  Heat flux through the block was calculated using Fourier’s law,

                                   (1)

The experimental dropwise condensation heat transfer coefficient was calculated using the measured saturated vapor temperature of the condensing steam and the surface temperature,

                  (2)

The combination of these equations using an energy balance at the surface gives a simplified expression for calculating the dropwise condensation heat transfer coefficient from experimental measurements,

                           (3)

Figure 5: Actual test setup used in the lab to measure the thermal performance of condenser surfaces.

3 RESULTS & DISCUSSION

3.1 Thermal Performance Evaluation

Contact angle measurements were completed prior to thermal performance testing using a custom in-house goniometer.  This was done to ensure the coating affinity and density was similar for each coated condenser material.  The results of this effort are seen in Figure 6 for the advancing contact angle and Table 1 with the advancing and receding contact angle measurements.  The measurements were consistent and close to 90º for the advancing contact angle, which was sufficient to move forward to thermal performance testing.

Figure 6: Advancing contact angle (θa) for FFA coating on each condenser material.

Table 1: Advancing and receding contact angle measurements for each surface material.

Copper Stainless Steel Carbon Steel
θa θr θa θr θa θr
Average 88.9º 77.0º 82.7º 76.3º 87.9º 80.1º
Standard Error 0.8º 2.3º 1.3º 3.7º 0.6º 1.1º

The data in Figure 7 represents the local vapor-to-surface temperature difference as a function of the local condensation heat flux for several condenser materials using both coating solutions.  The “non-FFA” coating solution contains only neutralizing amines, while the “FFA” coating solution contains both neutralizing amines and film-forming amines.  The “non-FFA” coating solution is used as a control to compare against using film-forming amines.  Power plants typically use blends of neutralizing amines for pH control, while film-forming amines are only used if corrosion protection of heat transfer surfaces is required [11].  Each data point represents a time-averaged value for specific experimental setpoints of heat input and heat removal.  The data in Figure 8 takes the previous data to examine as the local heat transfer coefficient as a function of condenser material thermal conductivity.  This is done to more easily compare the thermal performance results for each condenser material.

Figure 7: The local vapor-to-surface temperature difference as a function of the local condensation heat flux for each condenser material and coating solution.

Each condenser material will be examined to further understand the preliminary results.  For copper, high thermal performance was observed (h = 151 kW/m2-K) for the “FFA” coating, which is consistent with previously acquired results using standard thiol-based self-assembled monolayer coatings [12,13].  It is evident that the FFA coating does not add additional thermal resistance on the condenser surface, which some research has indicated with dense cross-linking.  The similarly high thermal performance of the “non-FFA” coating solution is due to the neutralizing amines deposited on the condenser surface, contributing to a short-lived, low surface energy.  The results for carbon steel and stainless steel are similar and demonstrate reduced thermal performance.  This is understood to happen due to constriction resistance, which is a phenomenon during dropwise condensation that constricts heat flow at the surface due to the low thermal conductivity of the condenser material [14, 15].  The presence of larger departing droplets, especially at low heat flux, leads to relative adiabatic regions on the surface leading reduced thermal performance.  In this case, there will be an upper limit to improved thermal performance on carbon steel and stainless steel surfaces.  The initial results obtained fit into this model, as evidenced by Figure 8.  Results were only able to be obtained for a short period of time, typically less than 10-20 minutes due to the low concentration and volatility of FFA in solution.  Following a vent of NCG, it was theorized the concentration of FFA drastically reduced leading to these short-term results.  While these thermal performance results for carbon steel are promising (h = 45 kW/m2-K), the appropriate test conditions need to be determined in order to maintain the concentration of FFA in solution.  Stainless steel exhibited the same issue.  The “non-FFA” coating solution for both carbon steel and stainless steel exhibited mixed dropwise and filmwise condensation results, due to the reduced affinity of the amine groups on the surface.

Figure 8: The local heat transfer coefficient as a function of the condenser thermal conductivity.

3.2 Coating Reliability

To gain additional insight into the thermal performance results, images of the condenser surface were taken during dropwise condensation experiments and following testing.  These images are seen in Figure 9 and Figure 10, respectively.  The first observation realized from the images in Figure 9 reveal the need for a consistent concentration of FFA in solution.  Due to the volatility of the FFA coating, the coating density is not maintained on the condenser surface, which leads to mixed modes of dropwise and filmwise condensation.  The second observation relates to the aforementioned constriction resistance, due to the presence of larger departing droplets on the steel surfaces compared to copper.  This visual evidence is key in understanding the reduced thermal performance on the steel condenser surfaces compared to copper, in relation to the observed constriction resistance.

Figure 9: Dropwise condensation on each condenser surface.

The images in Figure 10 reveal the effects of the FFA coating following its use.  The most interesting result is demonstrated for copper, where the FFA coating prevented oxidation of the condenser surface, leaving it in its original condition.  The non-FFA coating did not prevent oxidation, as expected.  This was a key finding in the application of FFA coatings in order to demonstrate their reliable, long-term use for corrosion protection.  Both the carbon steel and stainless steel surfaces demonstrated different findings.  The non-FFA coatings led to expected oxidation of the surfaces, forming a magnetite layer.  The FFA coating did not prevent corrosion, as expected from the aforementioned thermal performance results.  With the inconsistent coating density, certain portions of the surface were protected leading to mixed modes of condensation.  The following work will use an injection system to maintain the coating concentration on the surface during testing.  Irregularities in coating concentration may also be a result of condenser surface preparation, where dissolved oxygen should not be introduced during the coating process.  Solving these two issues will lead to a more robust coating application for long-term use.

Figure 10: Condenser surfaces following initial dropwise condensation testing for both “non-FFA” and “FFA” coating solutions.

4 CONCLUSIONS

To improve the thermal performance and durability of steam surface condensers, film-forming amine coatings were deposited on flat condenser surfaces to promote dropwise condensation.  To measure the thermal performance enhancement of these polymer coatings, a custom test apparatus was used to measure the local heat transfer coefficient.  The initial results suggest that improved thermal performance for copper, carbon steel, and stainless steel can be achieved.  These results are consistent with previously acquired data for similar coating/material systems and observations concerning reduced thermal performance for low thermal conductivity surfaces.  Further observations suggest the coating concentration requires control to maintain a dense coating application on the condenser surface.  Further testing will include this capability to provide more consistent thermal performance results and evaluate the repeated self-healing capabilities of these coatings.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work is funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under a BAA grant award, project number DE-FE0031657.  The program manager is Barbara Carney.  The authors would like to thank Phil Martin (ACT) for his experimental testing expertise and Don Meskers, Claudia Pierce, and Mahesh Budhathoki from Suez Water Technologies, Inc. for their collaboration on this program.

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19th IAHR International Conference on Cooling Towers and Heat Exchangers, 8-10 October 2019, Washington DC, USA

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Thermal Enhancements for Separable Thermal Mechanical Interfaces

James Schmidt et al., AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Washington, D.C., June 13-17, 2016

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The Design of a Split Loop Thermosyphon Heat Exchanger for Use in HVAC Applications

Daniel Reist et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Hot Reservoir Stainless-Methanol Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Constant Evaporator Temperature in Varying Ambient Conditions

Jens Weyant et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Hybrid Variable and Constant Conductance Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Environments and High Heat Flux Space Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Self-Venting Arterial Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Applications

William G. Anderson et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Performance Life Testing of a Nanoscale Coating for Erosion and Corrosion Protection in Copper Microchannel Coolers

Nathan Van Velson and Matt Flannery, IEEE ITherm Conference, May 31-June 3, 2016, Las Vegas, NV

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Heat Pipes used as Heat Flux Transformers and for Remote Heat Rejection

Devin Pellicone and Jens Weyant, PCIM Europe 2016, Nuremberg, Germany, May 10-12, 2016

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Enhanced Filmwise Condensation with Thin Porous Coating

Ying Zheng, Chien-Hua Chen, Howard Pearlman, Richard Bonner, First Pacific Rim Thermal Engineering Conference, PRTEC, March 13-17, 2016, Hawaii's Big Island, USA.

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Optimized Alkali Metal Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

Calin Tarau, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS) 2016, Huntsville, AL, February 22-25, 2016.

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Status of the Development of Low Cost Radiator for Surface Fission Power II

Calin Tarau, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS) 2016, Huntsville, AL, February 22-25, 2016.

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Passivation and Stabilization of Aluminum Nanoparticles for Energetic Materials

Matthew Flannery, Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2015, Received 17 June 2015; Accepted 13 October 2015

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Modeling high-temperature diffusion of gases in micro and mesoporous amorphous carbon

Raghavan Ranganathan, Srujan Rokkam, Tapan Desai, Pawel Keblinski, Peter Cross, and Richard Burnes, The Journal of Chemical Physics 143, 084701 (2015).

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Optimized Heat Pipe Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

Carl L. Schwendeman, Calin Tarau, Nicholas A. Schifer, John Polak, and William G. Anderson, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Status of the Low-Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

Taylor Maxwell, Calin Tarau, William G. Anderson, Scott Garner, Matthew Wrosch, and Maxwell H. Briggs, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Water-Titanium Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Fission Power

Rebecca Hay and William G. Anderson, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Two-Phase Thermal Switch for Spacecraft Passive Thermal Management

Nathan Van Velson, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Multiple Loop Heat Pipe Radiator for Variable Heat Rejection in Future Spacecraft

Nathan Van Velson, Calin Tarau, Mike DeChristopher, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Hybrid Heat Pipes for Planetary Surface and High Heat Flux Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Experimental Investigation on the Thermal and Hydraulic Performance of Alumina–Water Nanofluids in Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plates

Ehsan Yakhshi-Tafti, Sanjida Tamanna and Howard Pearlman, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 137, July 1, 2015

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A “Swiss-Roll” Fuel Reformer: Experiments and Modeling

Chien-Hua Chen, Bradley Richard, Ying Zheng, Howard Pearlman, Shrey Trivedi, Srusti Koli, Andrew Lawson, and Paul Ronney, “A “Swiss-Roll” Fuel Reformer: Experiments and Modeling,” 9th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, May 17-20, 2015.

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Effect of Porous Coating on Condensation Heat Transfer

Ying Zheng, Chien-hua Chen, Howard Pearlman, Matt Flannery and Richard Bonner. 9th International Conference on Boiling and Condensation Heat Transfer, April 26-30, 2015, Boulder, Colorado.

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High Temperature Water-Titanium Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Fission Power

Rebecca Hay and William G. Anderson, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2015), Albuquerque, NM, February 23-26, 2015.

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Nanoscale Coating for Microchannel Cooler Protection in High Powered Laser Diodes

Tapan Desai, Matthew Flannery, Nathan Van Velson, and Philip Griffin, “Nanoscale Coating for Microchannel Cooler Protection in High Powered Laser Diodes,” Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM 2015), San Jose, CA, March 16-19, 2015.

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Fuel-Flexible Hybrid Solar Coal Gasification Reactor

M. Flannery et al., "Fuel-Flexible Hybrid Solar Coal Gasification Reactor," 2014 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, October 6 - 9, 2014.

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Heat Pipe Embedded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Enclosures for Avionics Thermal Management

Andrew Slippey, Michael C. Ellis, Bruce Conway, and Hyo Chang Yun. SAE 2014 Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference, Cincinnati, OH, September 23-25, 2014.

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Passive Thermal Management for Avionics in High Temperature Environments

Michael C. Ellis, William G. Anderson, and Jared R. Montgomery. SAE 2014 Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference, Cincinnati, OH, September 23-25, 2014.

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Passivation of Aluminum Nanoparticles by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energetic Nanomaterials

T. Desai et al., ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces Journal, 2014, 6 (10), pp. 7942–7947, DOI: 10.1021/am5012707

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Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes

Ababneh, Mohammed T., Shakti Chauhan, Pramod Chamarthy, and Frank M. Gerner. "Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes." Journal of Heat Transfer 136, no. 11 (2014): 112901.

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Launch Vehicle Avionics Passive Thermal Management

W. G. Anderson et al., “Launch Vehicle Avionics Passive Thermal Management,” 44th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2014), Tucson, AZ, July 13-17, 2014.

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Low Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

Taylor Maxwell et al, 12th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, OH, July 28-30, 2014.

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Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Subcooled and Saturated Refrigerants in Minichannel Heat Sinks

E. Yakhshi-Tafti et al., ASME 2014 4th Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting and 12th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, August 3-7, 2014, Chicago, IL.

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Thermal-Fluid Modeling for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes

M. T. Ababneh et al., published in the AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 270-278, April 2014.

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Thermoelectric Performance Model Development and Validation for a Selection and Design Tool

Thomas Nunnally, Devin Pellicone, Nathan Van Velson, James Schmidt, Tapan Desai, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014.

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High Heat Flux Heat Pipes Embedded in Metal Core Printed Circuit Boards for LED Thermal Management

Dan Pounds, Richard W. Bonner III, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014

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Enhancing Thermal Performance in Embedded Computing for Ruggedized Military and Avionics Applications

Darren Campo, Jens Weyant, Bryan Muzyka, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014.

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A Corrosion and Erosion Protection Coating for Complex Microchannel Coolers used in High Power Laser Diodes

Tapan G. Desai, Matthew Flannery, Angie Fan, Jens Weyant, Henry Eppich, Keith Lang, Richard Chin, and Aland Chin, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014

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The Thermal Conductivity of Clustered Nanocolloids

T. Desai et al., APL Materials, 2, 066102 (2014); doi: 10.1063/1.4880975. 21 May 2014;

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Diffuse interface modeling of void growth in irradiated materials. Mathematical, thermodynamic and atomistic perspectives

Anter El-Azab Karim Ahmed, Srujan Rokkam, Thomas Hochrainer, Published in Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science (COSSMS), Vol. 18, pg. 90-98, 2014.

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Effect of Crosslink Formation on Heat Conduction in Amorphous Polymers

Gota Kikugawa, Tapan G. Desai, et al., Journal of Applied Physics 114, published online July 16, 2013

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Cooling of Stirling Convertor and General Purpose Heat Source

Calin Tarau, et al.,11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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High Temperature Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power

Kara L. Walker, et al.,11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator for Lunar Fission Power Systems

William G. Anderson, et al., 11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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Ammonia and Propylene Loop Heat Pipes with Thermal Control Valves – Thermal/Vacuum and Freeze/Thaw Testing

Kara Walker, et al., 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2013), Vail, CO, July 14-18, 2013.

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Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Life Tests and Analyses

W. G. Anderson, et al., 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2013), Vail, CO, July 14-18, 2013

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Correlation for dropwise condensation heat transfer: Water, organic fluids, and inclination

Richard W. Bonner III, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 61, June 2013, Pages 245-253

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A Non-Catalytic Fuel-Flexible Reformer

Chien-Hua Chen, et al., 8th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, hosted by the University of Utah, May 19-22, 2013

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Planar vapor chamber with hybrid evaporator wicks for the thermal management of high-heat-flux and high-power optoelectronic devices

P. Dussinger et al., International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 60, pp. 163–169, May 2013.

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Variable Conductance Thermal Management System for Balloon Payloads

Calin Tarau and William G. Anderson, 20th AIAA Lighter-Than-Air Systems Technology Conference, Daytona Beach, FL, March, 25-28, 2013

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Preliminary First Principle Based Electro-thermal Coupled Solver for Silicon Carbide Power Devices

Angie Fan et al., 29th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium, San Jose, CA, March 17-21, 2013

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Trade Study for Lunar Fission Power Systems

William G. Anderson, Bryan J. Muzyka, and John R. Hartenstine, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems – Experimental Results

Carl Schwendeman, Calin Tarau, William G. Anderson, and Peggy A. Cornell, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Alkali Metal Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power

Kara L. Walker, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Syngas Production by Thermochemical Conversion of CO2 and H2O Using a High-Temperature Heat Pipe Based Reactor

H. Pearlman and Chien-Hua Chen, SPIE Solar Hydrogen and Nanotechnology VII, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8469 San Diego, CA, August 12-14, 2012.

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Diode Heat Pipes for Venus Landers

Calin Tarau et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2012.

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Long-Lived Venus Lander Thermal Management System Design

Rebecca Hay et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Atlanta, GA, July 30 July-August 1, 2012.

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Variable Thermal Links

W. G. Anderson et al., 42nd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2012), San Diego, CA, July 15-19, 2012.

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Applications

W. G. Anderson et al., 16th International Heat Pipe Conference, Lyon, France, May 20-24, 2012.

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The Effect of Device Level Modeling on System-Level Thermal Predictions

Jens Weyant, et al., ITherm, San Diego, CA, May 30, 2012,

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Integration of a Phase Change Material for Junction-Level Cooling in GaN Devices

Daniel Piedra, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2012

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An Innovative Passive Cooling Method for High Performance Light-emitting Diodes

Angie Fan, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2012

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Ultra High Temperature Isothermal Furnace Liners (IFLs) For Copper Freeze Point Cells

Peter Dussinger and John Tavener, 9th International Temperature Symposium, Anaheim, CA, March 2012

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High Heat Flux, High Power, Low Resistance, Low CTE Two-Phase Thermal Ground Planes for Direct Die Attach Applications

Peter Dussinger, et al., GOMACTech 2012, Las Vegas, NV, March 2012

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Passive Control of a Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Lunar Lander Application

K. L. Walker et al., 42nd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2012), San Diego, CA, July 15-19, 2012.

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A Computational Model of a Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger in a Vapor Compression System with a Large Pulsed Heat Load

G. Troszak and X. Tang, Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Puerto Rico, July 8-12, 2012.

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2-D Simulation of Hot Electron-Phonon Interactions in a Submicron Gallium Nitride Device Using Hydrodynamic Transport Approach

Angie Fan et al., ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Puerto Rico, USA , July 8-12, 2012

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Novel Junction Level Cooling in Pulsed GaN Devices

Tapan G. Desai, et al., ITherm, San Diego, CA, May 30, 2012,

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Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Life Tests

W. G. Anderson, et al., 16th International Heat Pipe Conference, Lyon, France, May 20-24, 2012.

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Passivation Coatings for Micro-channel Coolers

Richard W. Bonner III, Jens Weyant, Evan Fleming, Kevin Lu, Daniel Reist, APEC 2012, Orlando FL, February 1, 2012

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Regolith Oxygen Production with Multiple Reactors

John Hartenstine, et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2011

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Thermal Management System for Long-Lived Venus Landers

Calin Tarau, et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2011

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes

William Anderson, et al., 41st International Conference on Environmental Systems, Portland, OR, July 17-21, 2011

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for a Lunar Variable Thermal Link

Chris Peters, et al., 41st International Conference on Environmental Systems, Portland, OR, July 17-21, 2011

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Two-Phase Heat Sinks with Microporous Coating

T. Semenic and S. M. You, 9th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, Edmonton, CA, June 19-22, 2011

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Die Level Thermal Storage for Improved Cooling of Pulsed Devices

Richard Bonner III, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA., March 2011

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A 2-D Numerical Study of Microscale Phase Change Material Thermal Storage for GaN Transistor Thermal Management

Xudong Tang, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2011

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Dynamic Response of Phenolic Resin and Its Carbon-nanotube Composites to Shock Wave Loading

Arman, et. al., Journal of Applied Physics, 109, 013503 (2011)

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Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Variable Thermal Conductance Link of Lunar Landers and Rovers

Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Variable Thermal Conductance Link of Lunar Landers and Rovers, J. R. Hartenstine et al., 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, FL, January 4-7, 2011.

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Electronics Cooling Using High Temperature Loop Heat Pipes with Multiple Condensers

William G. Anderson, et al., SAE Power Systems Conference, Ft. Worth, TX, November 2010

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Development of Heat Pipe Loop Technology for Military Vehicle Electronics Cooling

Xudong Tang et al., NDIA Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering and Technology Symposium, Dearborn, Michigan, August 2010

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Dropwise Condensation Life Testing of Self Assembled Monolayers

Richard Bonner III, IHTC14, Washington, DC, August 2010

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Heat and Mass Transfer in a Permeable Fabric system Under Hot Air Jet Impingement,

Sangsoo Lee et. al., International Heat Transfer Conference (IHTC14), Washington, DC, August, 2010

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Variable Thermal Conductance Link for Lunar Landers and Rovers

William G Anderson et. al., IECEC, Nashville, Tennessee, July, 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems – Design and Experimental Results

Calin Tarau and William G Anderson, IECEC, Nashville, Tennessee, July, 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe with Carbon-Carbon Radiator for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau and William G. Anderson, 15th International Heat Pipe Conference, Clemson, SC, April 2010

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Low-Temperature, Dual Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith

Kara Walker et al., 15th International Heat Pipe Conference, Clemson, South Carolina, April, 2010

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes

William G. Anderson, John R. Hartenstine, David B. Sarraf, and Calin Tarau, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., Pennsylvania, 15th International Heat Pipe Conference (15th IHPC) Clemson, USA, April 25-30, 2010.

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Dropwise Condensation in Vapor Chambers

Richard Bonner, 26th IEEE Semi-Therm Symposium, Santa Clara, California, February 2010

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Sodium VCHP with Carbon-Carbon Radiator for Radioisotope Stirling Systems,

Calin Tarau, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Laurel, Maryland, February 2010

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Advanced VCS Evaporators for Lunar Lander and Lunar Habitat Thermal Control Applications

Tadej Semenic, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Laurel, Maryland, February 2010

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Modeling Initial Stage of Phenolic Pyrolysis: Graphitic Precursor Formation and Interfacial Effects

Tapan Desai, et al., Polymer, 52, 2010

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Slip Behavior at Ionic Solid-fluid Interfaces

Tapan Desai, NDIA Chemical Physics Letters, 501, 2010, 93-97

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Roles of Atomic Restructuring in Interfacial Phonon Transport

Seungha Shin et. al., Physical Review B, 82, 081302 (2010)

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Anisotropic Shock Response of Columnar Nanocrystalline Cu

Sheng-Nian Luo et. al., Journal of Applied Physics , 107, 123507 (2010)

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Heat Pipe Embedded Alsic Plates for High Conductivity-Low CTE Heat Spreaders

J. Weyant, ITHERM 2010, Las Vegas NV,

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith

John R. Hartenstine, et al., AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, January 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., 7th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Denver Colorado, August 2009

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Loop Heat Pipe Design, Manufacturing and Testing – an Industrial Perspective

William Anderson, et al., ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Dropwise Condensation on Surfaces with Graded Hydrophobicity

Richard Bonner, ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Evaporators for High Temperature Lift Vapor Compression Loop for Space Applications

Tadej Semenic and Xudong Tang, ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiators for Lunar and Martian Environments

William Anderson, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production of Lunar Regolith

John Hartenstine, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Performance after Extended Periods of Freezing

Michael Ellis and William Anderson, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Loop Heat Pipe for TacSat-4

Peter Dussinger, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Advanced Thermal Management Technologies for High Power Automotive Equipment

Jon Zuo, et al., National Defense Industrial Association Ground Vehicle Power and Energy Workshop, Troy, Michigan, November 2008

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Vibration and Shock Tolerant Capillary Two-Phase Loop Technology for Vehicle Thermal Control

Xudong Tang and Chanwoo Park, 2008 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Jacksonville, Florida, August 2008

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NaK Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., 6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, Ohio, July 2008

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Heat Pipe Cooling of Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems

William Anderson, et al., 6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, Ohio, July 2008

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Startup Characteristics and Gravity Effects on a Medium/High-Lift Heat Pump Using Advanced Hybrid Loop Technology

Eric Sunada, et al., 38th SAE International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, California, June 2008

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High Temperature and High Heat Flux Thermal Management for Electronics

David Sarraf and William Anderson, IMAPS International Conference on High Temperature Electronics Conference (HiTEC 2008), Albuquerque, New Mexico, May 2008

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Heat Pipe Cooling of Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

William Anderson, et al., 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, San Diego, California, May 2008

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Local Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements of Flat Angles Sprays Using Thermal Test Vehicle

Richard Bonner, et al., 24th IEEE Semi-Therm Symposium, San Jose, California, March 2008

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe for Precise Temperature Control

David Sarraf, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Power Systems

John Hartenstine, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

William Anderson and Calin Tarau, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Vapor Compression Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology for Lunar Surface Applications

Chanwoo Park and Eric Sunada, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Experimental Study of Oscillating Flow Heat Transfer

Angie Fan, et al., Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer International Conference, Tainan, Taiwan, January 2008

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Metal Hydride Heat Storage Technology for Directed Energy Weapon Systems

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exhibition, Seattle, Washington, November 2007

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Electronics Thermal Management Using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2007 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Loop Thermosyphon Design for Cooling of Large Area, High Heat Flux Sources

John Hartenstine, et al., InterPACK 2007, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Heat Pipes for High Temperature Thermal Management

David Sarraf and William Anderson, InterPACK 2007, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes

William Anderson, 2007 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, St. Louis, MO, June 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests – Experiments

William Anderson, et al., 2007 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, St. Louis, MO, June 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests – Theory

Calin Tarau, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, NM, February 11 - 15, 2007.

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Spacecraft Thermal Management Using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, NM, February 11 - 15, 2007.

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Advanced Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for High Performance Thermal Management

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger with Two Levels of Isolation for Environmental Control of Manned Spacecraft Crew Compartment

David Sarraf, 37th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Norfolk, VA, July 17-20, 2006.

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Passive Thermal Management for a Fuel Cell Reforming Process

David Sarraf, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High Temperature Water-Titanium Heat Pipe Radiator

William Anderson, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High Temperature Titanium-Water and Monel-Water Heat Pipes

William Anderson, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High-Temperature Water Heat Pipes

David Sarraf and William Anderson, IMAPS International Conference on High Temperature Electronics, Santa Fe, NM, May 15 - 18, 2006

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High Performance Heat Storage and Dissipation Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE), Orlando, FL, November 5 - 11, 2005.

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Design and Testing of Titanium/Cesium and Titanium/Potassium Heat Pipes

Peter Dussinger, et al., 2005 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Francisco, CA, August 2005.

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High Temperature Lightweight Heat Pipe Panel Technology Development

Ted Stern and William Anderson, Space Nuclear Conference 2005, San Diego, CA, June 2005.

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Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Trade Study for the 300-550K Temperature Range

William Anderson and Walter Bienert, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2005

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Hybrid Loop Thermal Bus Technology for Vehicle Thermal Management

Chanwoo Park, et al., 24th Army Science Conference, Orlando, FL, November 29 - December 2, 2004

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