THERMAL CONCEPT FOR PLANETARY ICE MELTING PROBE

ICES-2020-201: Thermal Concept for Planetary Ice Melting Probe

Calin Tarau1, Kuan-Lin Lee2 and Willam G. Anderson3 Advanced Cooling Technologies,Inc, 1046 New Holland Ave., Lancaster, PA, 17601

Christopher G. MorrisonUltra Safe Nuclear Corporation, 2356W Commodore Way, Seattle,WA, 98199 and

Terry J. HendrickNASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory ,4800 Oak Grove Dr.,Pasadena, CA, 91109

To support NASA future Ocean Worlds Exploration missions, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc (ACT) is developing an innovative thermal management concept for a nuclear-powered ice melting probe. The concept consists of multiple advanced thermal features that can offer the most efficient and reliable ice penetration process by maximizing the power fraction used for forward melting and mitigating a series of foreseen challenges related to icy-planetary missions. These thermal features include:

  1. pumped two-phase (P2P) loop which collects the waste heat from the cold end of the thermoelectric convertors, transports and focuses the waste heat at the front end of the vehicle for ice melting with minimal thermal resistance
  2. front vapor chamber for forward heat focusing and melting
  3. variable conductance side walls to enable lateral melting capability (only when the probe gets stuck because of refreezing or other obstacles in its path)
  4. side high-pressure liquid water displacement for probe maneuverability and steering

Under an SBIR Phase I program, ACT developed a preliminary full-scale probe design and assessed the technical feasibility of features (1) through (4).  A lab-scale ice melting probe prototype with selected features was developed. Ice penetration and thermal behavior of the prototype were experimentally demonstrated in an ice environment system. Functionailties of variable conductance wall and vapor chamber were successfully proven.

Nomenclature

DOP           =    Depth of Penetration

R                 =    Thermal Resistance across each components

ΔT                      =    Temperature drop across each components

δ                 =    Melted liquid film thickness confined between the probe and the surrounding ice

 I.      Introduction

There is a significant interest within NASA and the scientific community to explore outer planetary ocean worlds[i], including Jupiter’s moon Europa. Since the Galileo spacecraft magnetometer data indicated that an ocean of liquid water/slush might exist 30 km below Europa’s icy shell, ocean access became of particular interest for future missions in view of the possibility of finding signs of life or life itself. Ice crust perforation can be achieved with a thermal probe that has a hot front that is supplied with enough heat so it can cancel ice subcooling (potentially very large degree), melt the ice or even sublimate the ice if ambient pressure is very low. Earth tests of such a vehicle have been successfully carried out as shown in Ref. [ii]. Thermal probes must be robust, low mass, and capable of transporting various sensors mounted inside the probe structure. As just mentioned, severe challenges however, can impact the melting process in a low-pressure environment, like on the Europa’s surface. As the ice gets heated below the triple-point pressure, it immediately sublimes dropping the melting efficiency, or at times preventing it. Experimental studies2 report that a melting vehicle is able to melt ice under vacuum conditions at 258 K. Also, thermal conductivity of ice can have a significant effect on the melting and thermal drilling process as it is strongly temperature-dependent. It is shown in Ref. [iii] that the high thermal conductivity of the low-temperature ice (6.5 Wm-1K-1 at 100 K), on Europa, makes the melting-based advancement/penetration more difficult and energy inefficient compared to Mars3. For example, a single (and isolated) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) module would be able to penetrate ice layers on Earth or Mars, whereas on Europa, due to low temperature ice at the surface, the source would become stuck in the ice with a surface temperature of < 200 K. A feasible melting probe for shallow ice on Europa was recently proposed by German researchers[iv]. An energy analysis for a penetration depth of only 10 cm was conducted and showed positive results for a sample size of 7 cm3.

In order to reduce penetration time, these nuclear-powered ice melting probes must have minimal footprint in vertical direction and the power fraction used for forward melting must be maximized. Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) is developing a novel thermal management system that can effectively focus the waste heat to the melting front during normal ice penetration operation and mitigate a series of challenges that the melting probe might encounter during a penetration process, including meeting obstacles, probe getting stuck due to ice refreezing etc.

 

[1] Principal Engineer, Advanced Cooling Technologies Inc., 1046 New Holland Ave., Lancaster PA 17601
[2] R&D Engineer III, Advanced Cooling Technologies Inc., 1046 New Holland Ave., Lancaster PA 17601
[3] Chief Engineer, Advanced Cooling Technologies Inc., 1046 New Holland Ave., Lancaster PA 17601
[4] Astro Nuclear Engineer, USNC-Tech, 2356W Commodore Way, Seattle WA 98199
[5] Project Manager, NASA Jet Propulson Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasandena CA 91109

 

 II.      Thermal Concept of The Ice Melitng Probe

Figure 1. Proposed Thermal Architecture for Europa Ice Melting Probe

Figure 1 shows a preliminary ice melting probe with thermal management features. The internal diameter of the probe is 26 cm and it is 3 m long. It contains 32 GPHS modules, which can generate 8kW of waste heat for ice melting. Operation principle of the thermal management system is as follows: heat is provided from the GPHS modules directly to the thermoelectric (TECs), and the waste heat from the TECs is taken by a pumped two-phase (P2P) loop via evaporators interfacing with the TECcold ends. Heat is transported via vapor flow to the condenser that is located at the bottom of the probe. Over there, a P2P condenser interfaces with a front vapor chamber. The front vapor chamber in turn focuses the heat into the front of the probe for forward melting. The same front vapor chamber is extended upwards along the inside of the external wall (cylindrical), all the way to the top, to form a narrow annular space.  This annular extension of the front vapor chamber contains a Non-Condensable Gas (NCG) during normal operation and potentially vapor when lateral metling is needed. When thermal resistance between the front and the ice/liquid increases because of lateral freezing or other obstacles, vapor temperature and therefore, vapor pressure in the vapor camber increases, which pushes the vapor-NCG interface upwards to heat the side walls for probe release or lateral motion. It can be seen from Figure 1 that four sets of liquid displacement nozzles are installed to provide probe steering/lateral movement capability to avoid obstacles. A simplified thermal management scheme is illustrated in Figure 2(a) and  the associated thermal resistance network is presented in Figure 2(b). The mathmematical expression of the overall thermal resistance is

In this expression R6 is a variable component, which decreases when the vapor/NCG front elevates. Three technical goals of full-scale probe trade study are:

  1. To develop a preliminary full-scale thermal management design which is able to minimize the temperature difference between the heat source (GPHS module) and the heat sink (ice) during normal operation
  2. To evaluate the technical feasibility of the proposed thermal feature by calculating ∆T across each component (with 8kW heat load)
  3. To identify pathways to further improve the thermal performances of all the thermal features.

Design and the feasibility analysis of each component are presented in the following sections.

Figure 2.(a) Schematic of thermal concept of Europa Ice melter (not to scale) (b) thermal resistance network

 

Figure 3. Pumped Two-phase system designed for Europa ice melting probe (a) schematic drawing of the entire loop (b) cross section of the evaporator that can separate liquid and vapor flows

A.   Pumped Two-Phase (P2P) Heat Delivery System

A schematic of the pumped two-phase loop system for waste heat collection from the cold end of TECs and heat transport to the front vapor chamber is shown in Figure 3(a). Liquid and vapor phases of the pumped coolant are separated by the wick structure within the evaporator (similar to Loop Heat Pipe evaporator) as shown in Figure 3(b). Liquid phase will be driven by a pump and circulate within the liquid lines. Wick structure of the evaporator will accept liquid from the liquid line into the vapor lines, as needed, through capillary action. Waste heat from TEC cold end will vaporize the working fluid in the wick. Vapor phase will be generated at the evaporator. It will travel along the vapor lines and release its latent heat at the condenser, which is located within the front vapor chamber. Incorporating the P2P loop will offer the following advantages to this system:

    • Minimized thermal resistance between the two-phase fluid and the HX tube wall
    • Low pumping power
    • Isothermality along the entire loop
      • Cold ends of the TECs are seeing the same sink temperature
    • Low mass
    • Easily managed variable heat loads

A preliminary P2P heat delivery system for Europa ice melting probe is designed. Design inputs are summarized in Table 1. Water is selected as the working fluid because of (1) its high latent heat of vaporization and (2) suitable operating temperatures. The thermal resistance through the evaporator (R1) is first calculated as 1.5E-3 K/W and the corresponding temperature drop through the evaporator with 8000W of heat load is around 12K (∆T1). Pressure drops along the liquid and vapor lines is calculated using the approach described in Ref.[v]. The volumetric flow rate is assumed to be  200 ml/min and the maximum vertical distance for the liquid to flow against Europa gravity is 1.5 meters (one way). With 8kW of heat load, the maximum pressure difference between the liquid and the vapor lines is 1,913 Pa, which occurs at the highest location of the loop. The capillary pressure that can be provided by the designed wick structure in the evaporator is 2,104 Pa. This means that the capillary pressure is sufficient to separate the liquid and the vapor phases in the evaporator. The vapor temperature drop from the evaporator to the condenser is less than 2°C (∆T2).

Table 1. Design inputs for P2P evaporator thermal performance analysis and P2P loop pressure drop analysis

B.   P2P Condenser/Front Vapor Chamber

The front vapor chamber is a crucial component of the thermal management system since it is the main “melting” component and the main heat sink of the P2P loop. The heat is received from the P2P loop through a low thermal resistance heat exchanger that has wick at the interface which is always saturated with liquid. The heat evaporates the liquid from the heat exchanger wicked surface. The vapor travels a short distance and condenses in the wick of the inside of the front wall and releases the latent heat. This heat conducts through the wall into the outside ice/water/environment. An optimized vapor chamber design would provide the following advantages:

  1. Low thermal resistance interface between the P2P loop and the environment.
  2. Uniform temperature distribution at the melting interface.
  3. Provide vapor to variable conductance walls.

Figure 4 is the CAD model of a preliminary front vapor chamber design, containing a P2P condenser, accumulator and pump. Probe OD is 26 cm and the probe wall thickness is 5.7mm, made of Titanium. The P2P condenser shown in this design consists of 11 rings of tubing in a rectangular cross section. Vapor coming from the P2P evaporator is divided into 6 branches and enters the condenser tubing. Using rectangular tubing will maximize the dry surface for vapor condensation and the heat transfer performance. Gravitational force on Europa will assist the separation of the liquid and the vapor phases. The condensed liquid film will fall and flow into the accumulator, which is located at the core of the front vapor chamber. Liquid will then be pumped back to the top of the probe and continue to collect waste heat from the heat sources. As Figure 4 shows, the front vapor chamber is elongated to increase heat transfer surface area at probe/ice interface. Also to accommodate more tubes for maximizing the heat exchange area between vapor chamber and P2P condenser, the vapor chamber is compartmentalized. Each level contains three to four rings. The capillary limit, sonic limit and entrainment limit of the vapor chamber design at different working temperature were calculated and plotted in Figure 5, which shows that this vapor chamber design is capable of transferring 8kW of heat at desired working temperature (303 – 333K) with sufficiently large margin.

 

 

Figure 4. P2P Condenser integrated within a vapor chamber

 

 

Figure 5. Heat transfer capability of the vapor chamber

Thermal resistance across P2P condenser can be calculated with the given designed inputs listed in Table 1 and  Figure 5The condensation heat transfer coefficient at inner surfaces of the condenser tubing is 20,000 W/m2K (Ref. [vi]). With 8kW of heat loads, the corresponding temperature drop across the P2P condenser can be determiend as 2.5K(∆T3).  Heat transfer from the inner surface of the vapor chamber to the probe wall outer surface consists of two components: (1) vapor condensation at the inner surface of the probe head (2) and conduction through the titanium probe wall. Condensation heat transfer coefficient on the probe inner surface with screen attached is assumed to be 7,000 W/m2K. The wall thickness of the probe wall is 5.7mm. This thickness is determined based on a simple stress analysis to make sure that the probe can withstand an external pressure of 500 atm with a factor of safety 2. As mentioned above, heat flux across the probe head is reduced by elongating the probe head. The resultant temperature drop (∆T4) is 18.9K.

C.    Heat Transfer Between the Probe and the Surrounding  Ice

Heat transfer between the probe head and the surrounding liquid layer/film (melted ice) is considered to be the “bottle neck” of the thermal resistance chain. An analytical model was recently developed by Schüller & Kowalski[vii]. In their physical model, ice melting is considered to be a quasi-steady process. During this process, a thin liquid water film with constant thickness δ forms at the melting front and separates the melting nose and the solid ice. In this configuration, portions of heat dissipated from the melting head are carried away by a lateral outflow velocity and the remaining heat is used to melt the bottom ice. Their model couples heat transfer, hydrodynamics and solid-liquid phase transition to describe the thin-film flow region confined between the probe surface and the solid subcooled ice. Four governing equations associated with the laws of conservation within the thin-film flow region and the force balance between the liquid and the probe are derived and solved7. ACT employs their theoretical model to predict the film thickness and the melting velocity of the current full-scale probe under Europa ice environment. Film confined between the probe head and the solid ice is very thin (less than 0.25 mm) and the average melting speed is around 0.15 mm/s. Probe will accelerate as it goes deeper because the surrounding ice is less subcooled. With 8000W of heat load, temperature of the probe head is around 298.15K. Note that in this analysis, the contact surface between ice and probe is assumed to be hemispherical. For an elongated probe head design, heat fluxes out from the probe surface will be m uch smaller than the hemispehere probe head design. This will lead to a smaller ∆T5. In addition, the contact surface area can be further enhanced by addinga a fin structure. Since the fin structure might change the confined flow pattern between the probe surface and the solid ice, the theoretical model presented above might not be applicable. More detailed numerical investigation will be performed in the future to clarify the benefit of adding area enhancement fins outside the probe head.

Table 2 below summarizes the temperature drops associated with different components of the thermal resistance network shown in Figure 2(b) (based on the design and analysis presented above). During nominal forward melting mode, if all 8000W of waste heat is dissipated through the front vapor chamber, the vapor temperature in the vapor chamber will be around 54°C and the TEC cold end temperature will be maintained around 60°C. The key of mitigating overall ∆T is to optimize the form factor of the probe head and the front vapor chamber. It is also beneficial to introduce area enhancement features to maximize probe head/ice contact area.

Table 2. Overall temperature drops from TEC to the surrounding ice based on the preliminary thermal management design for a full-scale probe

D.   Variable Conductance Wall

This feature involves an annular extension of the front vapor chamber upwards, all the way to the rear (top) and connected with an NCG reservoir. In other words, almost the entire probe would be blanketed by vapor and NCG that share the same volume/space. The vapor-NCG front location will be determined by vapor and NCG temperatures. Below, the feature is presented and explained based on the challenges that are solved.

  1. Releasing the probe from lateral freezing: The major purpose of this feature is to passively melt the side ice when the vehicle gets stuck as a result of lateral water refreezing. When such an event occurs, thermal resistance in the front increases due to the fact that latent heat is not absorbed and also, the amount of outside liquid water increases its temperature because of sensible heating. As a result, the vapor temperature increases and so does the vapor pressure. Then, the vapor – NCG front moves upwards allowing the advancing vapor to heat the side walls and further melt the outside ice to unblock the vehicle. Once the vehicle is free and able to continue the forward melting and movement, vapor pressure goes back to the nominal value and the front travels back to the nominal location, just above the front vapor chamber resuming normal operation and forward melting. The system is fully passive and saves energy by minimizing its use during abnormal situations.
  2. Avoiding obstacles – lateral melting: another serious challenge is the potential presence of rocks/debris/impurities in the path of the probe. In these cases, the forward melting becomes more difficult or even impossible and prevents the probe from its advancement. In such situations, the front vapor chamber, that needs to reject the continuously incoming heat, increases the vapor temperature and the NCG front moves up (as much as needed to enable heat rejection through the side walls). In other words, the probe gets hotter, melts the surrounding ice and creates liquid water all around the probe. The lateral melting and movement can then be started by engaging the liquid displacement nozzles, which are described later.
  3. Minimizing potential skewing: the vapor – NCG blanket that the Variable Conductance Walls feature provides will significantly increase the wall isothermality in the tangential direction, minimizing the potential for skewness. In turn, this will minimize the length of the melting path/trajectory to the ice-liquid interface.
  4. Heat rejection during transit: during transit to Europa the probe will be kept in “lateral melting” mode (or hot probe). In these conditions (hot probe), the entire amount of heat is rejected through the front vapor chamber and lateral walls to an external cooling loop (inside the carrier space craft) attached to the probe (and detachable once on Europa surface).

Figure 6 below shows NCG/vapor front location and vapor temperature as a function of environment temperature and total thermal power. In this case it was assumed that the entire thermal power of 8000 W was delivered to the environment through the vapor chamber at nominal conditions.  It is true that other factors like environmental pressure and ice subcooling would also influence boundary conditions (mostly heat transfer coefficient) therefore a more complex and detailed model will include these influences.

Figure 6. Vapor/NCG locations at various sink (environment) temperatures (full-scale system)

E.   Liquid Displacement System for Lateral Motion

This feature allows the probe to navigate through the ice in a direction other than vertical down when needed. This feature will always be assisted by the variable conductance wall feature that will, by default, always provide liquid water film around the probe. The feature will include a bellow-like boiler capable of high pressure (>500atm) that are provided with nozzles to the outside environment. The high-pressure liquid nozzles would work under two different regimes:

  • Two-phase water regime: where the liquid is pushed out almost continuously by the vapor pressure. This regime will be used at depths where the environmental pressure is lower than the critical pressure of water (217 atm).
  • Compressed liquid regime: where the pressure vessel is liquid tight and volumes of liquid are pushed out into the environment intermittently (to allow recharge/refill) by heating and cooling of the pressure vessel. This regime will be used at depths where the environmental pressure is higher than the critical pressure of water (217 atm). To be noted is that, even though the pressure is supercritical, heating of the vessel will not produce supercritical temperatures so the fluid (water) will always be in a “compressed liquid” state. The probe will be pushed in the opposite direction mostly by the displacement of the liquid out of the probe, because of the difference in liquid density caused by vessel expansion as well as by liquid compression. Preliminary calculations show that, in high pressure environment (500 atm), just by liquid displacement the probe can move entirely lateral at a rate of 0.2-0.3 mm per hour if an average heating power of 350W is applied.

Based on their principle of operation, type of energy used as well as heating and cooling methods available on board, there are several alternative concepts that ACT considered in regards to this feature, including:

  • Liquid water displacement by thermal cycling.
    • Liquid water displacement by thermal cycling – P2P loop Cooling.
    • Liquid water displacement by thermal cycling – Environment Direct Cooling.
  • Liquid water displacement by electro -mechanical pumping.

III.      Lab-scale Melting Probe Prototype Development

A reduced-scale melting probe prototype is developed by ACT to demonstrate two major thermal features: a variable conductance wall and a front vapor chamber. The sectional view of the lab-scale prototype is shown in Figure 7 and the fabricated hardware is shown in Figure 8. The probe OD is 3 inches (7.62 cm) and the length is 11 inches (27.94 cm). This prototype consists of two shells: The inner shell contains a heater block and an NCG reservoir. The outer shell is the actual melting probe.  The annular space between the two shells is the vapor space of variable conductance walls, which is charged with the working fluid (water) and the NCG (nitrogen). The entire probe is made of Monel because of its compatibility with water. It is however envisioned that the full-scale probe will be made from titanium (also compatible with water). As mentioned above, a custom-made heater block is integrated with the inner shell lower dome, which can provide more than 500W of heat. TCs and cables of heater extrude from the top of the probe via a feedthrough pipe. The vapor chamber is located at the bottom of the probe and the liquid return is achieved by rolls of fine screen mesh. The probe head has fin structure to enhance ice/probe contact area (Figure 8). After charging with the working fluid and the NCG from the fill tube, the probe is placed on the ice environment system for testing. The ice environment system is essentially a big ice block (40.6 cm x 20.3 cm x 76.2 cm) enclosed by 6 sets of LN serpentine as shown in Figure 9. Temperatures along the probe and the penetration depth are monitored during the test by 17 thermal couples and a linear depth penetration sensor. In addition, the process of ice penetration is recorded by a camera, taking photographs every 2 mins.

 

Figure 7. Lab-scale melting probe prototype for thermal feature demonstration

 

Figure 8. Lab-scale ice melting probe prototype with area enhanced melting head

Figure 9. Ice Envionrment System for Prototype Testing

IV.      Test results and Discussion

A.  Ice Penetration Test

Figure 10 shows the temperature evolution with respect to the depth of penetration. In this test, 95W of heat was continuously applied to the heater. Before refreezing occurs (will be shown later), the probe melts downward in a nearly constant speed, which is around 0.028 mm/s. Figure 11 is a photograph taken at t =2800s. The instantaneous temperature profile along the probe, depth of penetration (DOP) and the time stamp are shown in the monitor in the photograph. The probe sinking velocity and the probe head temperature data was used to validate the theoretical model described in Ref. 7 and the results are shown in Table 3.

Figure 10. Ice penetration test results. The upper plot shows the depth of penetration and the lower plot shows the corresponding temperature evolution

 

 

Figure 11. Probe status during normal ice penetration (t=2800s)

 

Table 3. Comparison between theoretical results and test data

 

B.   Probe Refreezing and Self-Releasing

One of the critical functionalities of the variable conductance wall is to allow the probe to release itself from a refreezing condition. This was successfully demonstrated in Figure 12  At the beginning of the test, probe was sinking smoothly. As more length of the probe submerged into the ice, more heat started releasing to the environment and at t=6200 seconds, ice around the probe body started refreezing. The probe was getting stuck and unable to melt forward. As predicted, the variable conductance wall started operating: the probe cannot dissipate all the heat through the front vapor chamber and the vapor temperature (and pressure) increases. Vapor expands and pushes the vapor front upward.  This leads to the increase of side wall temperature, which can be seen from the transient temperature data shown in Figure 12. Increased side wall temperature melted the refreezing spots and the probe was released. After the probe was released from refreezing condition, probe front temperature significantly decreased and the vapor front retracted.

Figure 12. Depth of penetration data and probe temperature behavoir during stuck and self-releasing periods

C.    Probe Meets an Obstacle

A third test was then conducted to demonstrate thermal behavior of the variable conductance wall when the probe front meets an obstacle. Testing procedure is similar to the previous test and the result is shown in Figure 13. The major difference is that an obstacle (a polymer plate) was embedded at the depth of 10.8 inches (27.4 cm). In the early stage of the test, the probe smoothly penetrated the ice. During the middle of penetration process, the probe was getting stuck due to ice refreezing and probe released itself using the mechanism discussed above. At t=18,000s, the probe front met the obstacle and could not melt forward. As the temperature data shown in Figure 13, vapor front moved significantly and heated up the side wall. Temperature profiles for the three different cases are shown in Figure 14.

 

 

 

Figure 13. Depth of penetration data and probe temperature behavior at various conditions, including normal melting, refreezing and meeting obstacles.

 

Figure 14. Temperature profile comparison among three cases (1) Normal forward melting (2) Probe Stuck due to Refreezing (3) Probe Stuck due to meeting obstacle

 V.      Conclusions

Under an SBIR Phase I program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc (ACT) developed a thermal concept for Europa ice melting probe. The thermal management architecture consists of multiple novel features that can offer the following advantages:

  • A pumped two-phase heat delivery system can uniformly acquire the waste heat from multiple GPHS modules and transport the waste heat to the vapor chamber with minimal temperature drop and using minimal pumping power. At the same time, it plays the role of an on board thermal bus for other thermal needs like heating/cooling the pressure vessel for steering/lateral propulsion
  • A front vapor chamber can effectively transfer heat from the P2P condenser to the melting head with minimized thermal resistance. The heat transfer performance of the front vapor chamber can be further improved with elongated nose design and area enhancement features
  • A variable conductance wall that can passively control heat dissipating area to achieve maximized forward melting velocity during normal mode and provide lateral melting capability when the probe gets stuck in the ice.
    • When the probe gets stuck due to refreezing, variable conductance wall will automatically heat up the side wall and release the probe.
    • When the probe meets an obstacle, variable conductance wall will heat up the entire side wall. With the assistance of the liquid displacement system, the probe can move laterally and avoid the obstacle.
    • A Liquid Displacement System that will enable the probe to move laterally and bypass the obstacle. By strategically designing the boiler and heating/cooling elements, the liquid displacement system will be able to operate in both subcritical and supercritical regimes.

The technical feasibility of above features was assessed in Phase I. A proof-of-concept ice melting probe prototype that has three key features (variable conductance wall, front vapor chamber and liquid displacement system) was developed. Ice penetration and thermal behavior of the prototype was experimentally demonstrated in an ice environment system. Three testing scenarios were conducted (ice penetration, probe refreezing/self-releasing and meeting obstacle). Both variable conductance wall and front vapor chamber concept were successfully demonstrated.

Acknowledgments

This project is sponsored by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under an SBIR Phase I program (Contract# 80NSSC190363). We would like to thank Terry J. Hendrick (technical monitor) and Eric Sunada for their supports and valuable inputs to the program. We would also like to acknowledge Philip Texter, Chris Jarmoski, Larry Waltman and Patrick Wisotzkey who have significant technical contributions on lab-scale melting probe prototype development.

References

[i] Roadmaps to Ocean Worlds (ROW) Group, “ The NASA Roadmap to Ocean Worlds”, Astrobology, vol.19, no.1 2019

[ii] Kaufmann E., Kargl G., Kömel N. I., Steller M., Hasiba J., Tatschl F. and Ulamec S. “Melting and Sublimation of Planetary Ices Under Low Pressure Conditions: Laboratory Experiments with a Melting Probe Prototype”, Earth, Moon and Planets, Vol.105, no.1, pp. 11-29, 2009

[iii] Lorenz R.D., “Thermal Drilling in Planetary Ices: An Analytic Solution with Application to Plantary Protection Problems to Radioisotope Power Sources” Astrobiology, vol.12, no.8, 2012

[iv] Biele J, Ulamec S., Hilchenbach M. and Kömel N. I., “ In Situ Analysis of Europa Ices by Short-range Melitng Probe”, Advanced in Space Research, vol 48, no.4 , pp 755-763, 2011

[v] Ben F. and Sunada E., Stefano C., Pradeep B., “A Comparison of System Architectures for a Mechanically Pumped Two-Phase Thermal Control System”, In 47th ICES, 16-20 July 2017, Charleston, SC, 2017

[vi] Ying, Z.” Enhanced Film-wise Condensation with Thin Porous Coating”, in PRTEC, 2016

[vii] Schuller K and Kowalski J., “Melting Probe Technology for Subsurface Exploration of Extraterrestrial Ice-Critical Refreezing Length and the Role of Gravity”, Icarus, vol. 317, pp. 1-9, 2019

 

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Bio-inspired self-agitator for convective heat transfer enhancement

Zheng Li et al., Applied Physical Letters 113, 113703 (2018)

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Corrosion testing of metals in contact with calcium chloride hexahydrate used for thermal energy storage

S. J. Ren et al., Materials and Corrosion, Volume 68, Issue 10, July 2017

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Thermal energy storage with tunable melting point phase change materials

Fangyu Cao et al., Proceedings of the 16th International Heat Transfer Conference, Bejing, China, August 10-15, 2018

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Loop Heat Pipe Wick Fabrication via Additive Manufacturing

Bradley Richard et al., 48th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Albuquerque, New Mexico, July 8-12, 2018

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Design Analysis and Performance testing of a Novel Passive Thermal Management System for Future Exploration Missions

Angel R. Alvarez-Hernandez et al., International Conference on Environmental Systems, Albuquerque, NM July 8-12, 2018

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High-Heat-Flux (> 50 W/cm2) Hybrid Constant Conductance Heat Pipes

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al. International Conference on Environmental Systems, Albuquerque, NM, July 8-12, 2018

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Demonstration of Copper-Water Heat Pipes Embedded in High Conductivity (HiK™) Plates in the Advanced Passive Thermal eXperiment (APTx) on the International Space Station (ISS)

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al., International Conference on Environmental Systems, Albuquerque, NM July 8-12, 2018

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Advanced Passive Thermal eXperiment (APTx) for Warm-Reservoir Hybrid-Wick Variable Conductance Heat Pipes on the International Space Station (ISS),”

Calin Tarau, et al., International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2018), Albuquerque, NM July 8-12, 2018

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Apparatus for Characterizing Hot Surface Ignition of Aviation Fuels

Andrew Slippey et al., AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum, (AIAA 2018-4708), Cincinnati, OH, July 9-12, 2018

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Titanium Water Heat Pipe Radiators for Space Fission System Thermal Management

Kuan-Lin Lee, et al., 19th International Heat Pipe Conference, Pisa, Italy, June 10-14, 2018

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Copper-Water and Hybrid Aluminum-Ammonia Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Thermal Control Applications

Mohammed Ababneh, et al., 19th International Heat Pipe Conference, Pisa, Italy, June 10-14, 2018

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Loop Heat Pipe Wick Fabrication via Additive Manufacturing

Bradley Richard, et al., 19th International Heat Pipe Conference, Pisa, Italy, June 10-14, 2018

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Meshless Computational tools for Fatigue Damage and Failure Modeling

Srujan Rokkam et al., ITHERM 2018 (17th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems), San Diego, CA, May 29 – June 1

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Thermal Management Technologies for Embedded Cooling Applications

Andy Slippey et al., ITHERM 2018 (17th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems), San Diego, CA, May 29 – June 1

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Experimental Investigation of Gravity-Driven Two-Phase Cooling for Power Electronics Applications

Devin Pellicone, PCIM 2018, Nuremberg, Germany, June 5-7, 2018.

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Experimental, Numerical and Analytic Study of Unconstrained Melting in a Vertical Cylinder with a Focus on Mushy Region Effects

Chunjian Pan,⇑, Joshua Charles, Natasha Vermaak, Carlos Romero, Sudhakar Neti, Energy Research Center, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA Ying Zheng, Chien-Hua Chen, Richard Bonner III, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., Lancaster, PA 17601, USA International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Accepted 2 April 2018

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A Non-Thermal Gliding Arc Plasma Reformer for Syngas Production

Howard Pearlman, 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018

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An Innovative Volatile Organic Compound Incinerator

Joel Crawmer et al., International Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT3), Houston, TX, March 6-8 2018

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Developing High-Temperature Water-Repellent Glass Fibers Through Atomic Layer Deposition

Mohammad Reza Shaeri et al., 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018.

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Dropwise Condensation on Hydrophobic Microporous Powder and the Transition to Intrapowder Droplet Removal

Sean Hoenig and Richard W. Bonner, III, 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018.

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The Key Role of Pumping Power in Active Cooling Systems

Mohammed Reza Shaeri, 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018.

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Nucleating agent enhanced thermal desalination at the triple point

Fangyu Cao et al., 3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 4-7, 2018

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Titanium Water Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power Cooling

Kuan-Lin Lee et al. ANS NETS 2018 – Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space Las Vegas, NV, February 26 – March 1, 2018

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Dropwise Condensation on Superhydrophobic Microporous Wick Structures

Sean Hoenig, Richard Bonner, Ph.D., ASME doi:10.1115/1.4038854 History: Received April 28, 2017; Revised December 06, 2017

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A Peridynamics-FEM Approach for Crack Path Prediction in Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Srujan Rokkam et al., 2018 AIAA SciTech Forum, Kissimmee, FL, January 8-12, 2018.

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Vapor chambers with hydrophobic and biphilic evaporators in moderate to high heat flux applications

Mohammad Reza Shaeri, Daniel Attinger, Richard W. Bonner III, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 130(5), Pages 83-92, February 2018

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Model-Based Dynamic Control of Active Thermal Management System

ASME 2017 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition IMECE 2017 - 71918, November 3-9, 2017 Tampa, FL. Nathan Van Velson, Srujan Rokkam, Quang Truong, Bryan Rasmussen

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Efficient optimization of a longitudinal finned heat pipe structure for a latent thermal energy storage system

Sean Hoenig et al., Energy Conversion and Management, 153, pp. 93-105, 2017.

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The Electroneutrality Constraint in Nonlocal Models

Eitan Lees, Srujan Rokkam, Sachin Shanbhag, and Max Gunzburger. Journal of Chemical Physics 147, 124102 (2017)

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Heat Pipe Embedded Thermoelectric Generator for Diesel Generator Set Waste Heat Recovery

James Schmidt and Mohammed Ababneh. 14th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum, (AIAA 2016-4605)

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Efficient Modeling of Phase Change Material Solidification with Multidimensional Fins

C. Pan et al., International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 115, Part A, pp. 897-909, December 2017.

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Integrated Vapor Chamber Heat Spreader for Power Module Applications

Clayton Hose et al., InterPACK 2017, San Francisco, CA, August 29 – September 1, 2017

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Heat transfer and pressure drop in laterally perforated-finned heat sinks across different flow regimes

Mohammad Reza Shaeri, Richard Bonner Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., Lancaster, PA 17601, United States , Available online 24 August 2017

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Feasibility Study of a Vapor Chamber with a Hydrophobic Evaporator Substrate in High Heat Flux Applications

Mohammad Reza Shaeria et al., International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 86, pp. 199–205, 2017.

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Effect of Perforation Size to Perforation Spacing on Heat Transfer in Laterally Perforated-Finned Heat Sinks

Mohammed Reza Shaeri, and Richard W. Bonner III, ASME 2017 Summer Heat Transfer Conference (HT2017), July 9-14, 2017, Bellevue, Washington, USA

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Two-Phase Heat Exchanger with Thermal Storage Capability for Space Thermal Control System

Two-Phase Heat Exchanger with Thermal Storage Capability for Space Thermal Control System, Kuan-Lin Lee, et al. 47th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2017), July 16-20, 2017, Charleston, South Carolina

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Advanced Passive Thermal Experiment for Hybrid Variable Conductance Heat Pipes and HiK™ Plates on the International Space Station

Advanced Passive Thermal Experiment for Hybrid Variable Conductance Heat Pipes and HiK™ Plates on the International Space Station, Mohammed T. Ababneh, et al. 47th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2017), July 16-20, 2017, Charleston, South Carolina

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LHP Wick Fabrication via Additive Manufacturing

LHP Wick Fabrication via Additive Manufacturing. Bradley Richard, et al. 47th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2017), July 16-20, 2017, Charleston, South Carolina

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High Temperature Water Heat Pipes for Kilopower System

Derek Beard et al., IECEC – AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition (AIAA Propulsion and Energy 2017), July 10-12, Atlanta, Georgia

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Sodium Heat Pipes for Space and Surface Fission Power

Derek Beard, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, IECEC – AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition (AIAA Propulsion and Energy 2017), July 10-12, Atlanta, Georgia

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Laminar Forced Convection Heat Transfer From Laterally Perforated-Finned Heat Sinks

Mohammad Reza Shaeri and Richard W. Bonner III, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 116, pp. 406-418, April 2017.

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An Innovative Volatile Organic Compound Incinerator

Joel Crawmer et al., 10th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, College Park, MD, April 23-26, 2017

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A Swiss Roll Style Combustion Reactor for Non-Catalytic Reforming

Ryan Zelinsky et al., 10th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, College Park, MD, April 23-26, 2017

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Thermal Resistance Network Model for Heat Pipe-PCM Based Cool Storage System

Sean Hoenig et al., 2nd Thermal and Fluid Engineering Conference (TFEC2017), Las Vegas, NV, April 2-5 2017.

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Development of Low Cost Radiator for Surface Fission Power

Calin Tarau et al., International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Salt Lake City, UT, July 25-27, 2016

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Generation of amorphous carbon models using liquid quench method: A reactive molecular dynamics study.

Raghavan Ranganathan, Srujan Rokkam, Tapan Desai, Pawel Keblinski Carbon, Volume 113, March 2017, Pages 87–99

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Self-Venting Arterial Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Applications

Derek Beard, William G. Anderson, and Calin Tarau, International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Salt Lake City, UT, July 25-27, 2016

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Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al., International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) 2016, Vienna. Austria, July 11-14, 2016

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Development of a Pumped Two-phase System for Spacecraft Thermal Control

Michael C. Ellis and Richard C. Kurwitz, International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) 2016, Vienna. Austria, July 11-14, 2016

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Vapor Chamber with Phase Change Material-Based Wick Structure

James Yun, Calin Tarau, and Nathan Van Velson, International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) 2016, Vienna. Austria, July 11-14, 2016

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A Novel Closed System, Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Design for High Stability Isothermal Furnace Liner Applications

Taylor Maxwell et al., 13th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science (TEMPMEKO 2016), Zakopane, Poland, June 26 – July 1, 2016

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Thermal Enhancements for Separable Thermal Mechanical Interfaces

James Schmidt et al., AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Washington, D.C., June 13-17, 2016

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The Design of a Split Loop Thermosyphon Heat Exchanger for Use in HVAC Applications

Daniel Reist et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Hot Reservoir Stainless-Methanol Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Constant Evaporator Temperature in Varying Ambient Conditions

Jens Weyant et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Hybrid Variable and Constant Conductance Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Environments and High Heat Flux Space Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Self-Venting Arterial Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Applications

William G. Anderson et al., Joint 18th International Heat Pipe Conference and 12th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Jeju, Korea, June 12-16, 2016

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Performance Life Testing of a Nanoscale Coating for Erosion and Corrosion Protection in Copper Microchannel Coolers

Nathan Van Velson and Matt Flannery, IEEE ITherm Conference, May 31-June 3, 2016, Las Vegas, NV

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Heat Pipes used as Heat Flux Transformers and for Remote Heat Rejection

Devin Pellicone and Jens Weyant, PCIM Europe 2016, Nuremberg, Germany, May 10-12, 2016

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Enhanced Filmwise Condensation with Thin Porous Coating

Ying Zheng, Chien-Hua Chen, Howard Pearlman, Richard Bonner, First Pacific Rim Thermal Engineering Conference, PRTEC, March 13-17, 2016, Hawaii's Big Island, USA.

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Optimized Alkali Metal Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

Calin Tarau, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS) 2016, Huntsville, AL, February 22-25, 2016.

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Status of the Development of Low Cost Radiator for Surface Fission Power II

Calin Tarau, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS) 2016, Huntsville, AL, February 22-25, 2016.

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Passivation and Stabilization of Aluminum Nanoparticles for Energetic Materials

Matthew Flannery, Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2015, Received 17 June 2015; Accepted 13 October 2015

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Modeling high-temperature diffusion of gases in micro and mesoporous amorphous carbon

Raghavan Ranganathan, Srujan Rokkam, Tapan Desai, Pawel Keblinski, Peter Cross, and Richard Burnes, The Journal of Chemical Physics 143, 084701 (2015).

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Optimized Heat Pipe Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

Carl L. Schwendeman, Calin Tarau, Nicholas A. Schifer, John Polak, and William G. Anderson, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Status of the Low-Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

Taylor Maxwell, Calin Tarau, William G. Anderson, Scott Garner, Matthew Wrosch, and Maxwell H. Briggs, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Water-Titanium Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Fission Power

Rebecca Hay and William G. Anderson, 13th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, FL, CA, July 27-29, 2015.

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Two-Phase Thermal Switch for Spacecraft Passive Thermal Management

Nathan Van Velson, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Multiple Loop Heat Pipe Radiator for Variable Heat Rejection in Future Spacecraft

Nathan Van Velson, Calin Tarau, Mike DeChristopher, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Hybrid Heat Pipes for Planetary Surface and High Heat Flux Applications

Mohammed T. Ababneh, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems (IECS), Bellevue, WA, July 12-16, 2015.

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Experimental Investigation on the Thermal and Hydraulic Performance of Alumina–Water Nanofluids in Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plates

Ehsan Yakhshi-Tafti, Sanjida Tamanna and Howard Pearlman, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 137, July 1, 2015

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A “Swiss-Roll” Fuel Reformer: Experiments and Modeling

Chien-Hua Chen, Bradley Richard, Ying Zheng, Howard Pearlman, Shrey Trivedi, Srusti Koli, Andrew Lawson, and Paul Ronney, “A “Swiss-Roll” Fuel Reformer: Experiments and Modeling,” 9th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, May 17-20, 2015.

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Effect of Porous Coating on Condensation Heat Transfer

Ying Zheng, Chien-hua Chen, Howard Pearlman, Matt Flannery and Richard Bonner. 9th International Conference on Boiling and Condensation Heat Transfer, April 26-30, 2015, Boulder, Colorado.

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High Temperature Water-Titanium Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Fission Power

Rebecca Hay and William G. Anderson, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2015), Albuquerque, NM, February 23-26, 2015.

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Nanoscale Coating for Microchannel Cooler Protection in High Powered Laser Diodes

Tapan Desai, Matthew Flannery, Nathan Van Velson, and Philip Griffin, “Nanoscale Coating for Microchannel Cooler Protection in High Powered Laser Diodes,” Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM 2015), San Jose, CA, March 16-19, 2015.

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Fuel-Flexible Hybrid Solar Coal Gasification Reactor

M. Flannery et al., "Fuel-Flexible Hybrid Solar Coal Gasification Reactor," 2014 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, October 6 - 9, 2014.

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Heat Pipe Embedded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Enclosures for Avionics Thermal Management

Andrew Slippey, Michael C. Ellis, Bruce Conway, and Hyo Chang Yun. SAE 2014 Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference, Cincinnati, OH, September 23-25, 2014.

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Passive Thermal Management for Avionics in High Temperature Environments

Michael C. Ellis, William G. Anderson, and Jared R. Montgomery. SAE 2014 Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference, Cincinnati, OH, September 23-25, 2014.

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Passivation of Aluminum Nanoparticles by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energetic Nanomaterials

T. Desai et al., ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces Journal, 2014, 6 (10), pp. 7942–7947, DOI: 10.1021/am5012707

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Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes

Ababneh, Mohammed T., Shakti Chauhan, Pramod Chamarthy, and Frank M. Gerner. "Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes." Journal of Heat Transfer 136, no. 11 (2014): 112901.

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Launch Vehicle Avionics Passive Thermal Management

W. G. Anderson et al., “Launch Vehicle Avionics Passive Thermal Management,” 44th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2014), Tucson, AZ, July 13-17, 2014.

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Low Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

Taylor Maxwell et al, 12th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, OH, July 28-30, 2014.

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Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Subcooled and Saturated Refrigerants in Minichannel Heat Sinks

E. Yakhshi-Tafti et al., ASME 2014 4th Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting and 12th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, August 3-7, 2014, Chicago, IL.

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Thermal-Fluid Modeling for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes

M. T. Ababneh et al., published in the AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 270-278, April 2014.

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Thermoelectric Performance Model Development and Validation for a Selection and Design Tool

Thomas Nunnally, Devin Pellicone, Nathan Van Velson, James Schmidt, Tapan Desai, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014.

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High Heat Flux Heat Pipes Embedded in Metal Core Printed Circuit Boards for LED Thermal Management

Dan Pounds, Richard W. Bonner III, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014

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Enhancing Thermal Performance in Embedded Computing for Ruggedized Military and Avionics Applications

Darren Campo, Jens Weyant, Bryan Muzyka, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014.

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A Corrosion and Erosion Protection Coating for Complex Microchannel Coolers used in High Power Laser Diodes

Tapan G. Desai, Matthew Flannery, Angie Fan, Jens Weyant, Henry Eppich, Keith Lang, Richard Chin, and Aland Chin, 2014 IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2014

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The Thermal Conductivity of Clustered Nanocolloids

T. Desai et al., APL Materials, 2, 066102 (2014); doi: 10.1063/1.4880975. 21 May 2014;

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Diffuse interface modeling of void growth in irradiated materials. Mathematical, thermodynamic and atomistic perspectives

Anter El-Azab Karim Ahmed, Srujan Rokkam, Thomas Hochrainer, Published in Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science (COSSMS), Vol. 18, pg. 90-98, 2014.

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Effect of Crosslink Formation on Heat Conduction in Amorphous Polymers

Gota Kikugawa, Tapan G. Desai, et al., Journal of Applied Physics 114, published online July 16, 2013

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Cooling of Stirling Convertor and General Purpose Heat Source

Calin Tarau, et al.,11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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High Temperature Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power

Kara L. Walker, et al.,11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator for Lunar Fission Power Systems

William G. Anderson, et al., 11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Jose, CA, July 15-17, 2013.

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Ammonia and Propylene Loop Heat Pipes with Thermal Control Valves – Thermal/Vacuum and Freeze/Thaw Testing

Kara Walker, et al., 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2013), Vail, CO, July 14-18, 2013.

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Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Life Tests and Analyses

W. G. Anderson, et al., 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2013), Vail, CO, July 14-18, 2013

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Correlation for dropwise condensation heat transfer: Water, organic fluids, and inclination

Richard W. Bonner III, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 61, June 2013, Pages 245-253

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A Non-Catalytic Fuel-Flexible Reformer

Chien-Hua Chen, et al., 8th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, hosted by the University of Utah, May 19-22, 2013

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Planar vapor chamber with hybrid evaporator wicks for the thermal management of high-heat-flux and high-power optoelectronic devices

P. Dussinger et al., International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 60, pp. 163–169, May 2013.

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Variable Conductance Thermal Management System for Balloon Payloads

Calin Tarau and William G. Anderson, 20th AIAA Lighter-Than-Air Systems Technology Conference, Daytona Beach, FL, March, 25-28, 2013

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Preliminary First Principle Based Electro-thermal Coupled Solver for Silicon Carbide Power Devices

Angie Fan et al., 29th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium, San Jose, CA, March 17-21, 2013

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Trade Study for Lunar Fission Power Systems

William G. Anderson, Bryan J. Muzyka, and John R. Hartenstine, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems – Experimental Results

Carl Schwendeman, Calin Tarau, William G. Anderson, and Peggy A. Cornell, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Alkali Metal Heat Pipes for Space Fission Power

Kara L. Walker, Calin Tarau, and William G. Anderson, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS-2013), Albuquerque, NM, February 25-28, 2013.

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Syngas Production by Thermochemical Conversion of CO2 and H2O Using a High-Temperature Heat Pipe Based Reactor

H. Pearlman and Chien-Hua Chen, SPIE Solar Hydrogen and Nanotechnology VII, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8469 San Diego, CA, August 12-14, 2012.

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Diode Heat Pipes for Venus Landers

Calin Tarau et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2012.

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Long-Lived Venus Lander Thermal Management System Design

Rebecca Hay et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Atlanta, GA, July 30 July-August 1, 2012.

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Variable Thermal Links

W. G. Anderson et al., 42nd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2012), San Diego, CA, July 15-19, 2012.

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Applications

W. G. Anderson et al., 16th International Heat Pipe Conference, Lyon, France, May 20-24, 2012.

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The Effect of Device Level Modeling on System-Level Thermal Predictions

Jens Weyant, et al., ITherm, San Diego, CA, May 30, 2012,

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Integration of a Phase Change Material for Junction-Level Cooling in GaN Devices

Daniel Piedra, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2012

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An Innovative Passive Cooling Method for High Performance Light-emitting Diodes

Angie Fan, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2012

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Ultra High Temperature Isothermal Furnace Liners (IFLs) For Copper Freeze Point Cells

Peter Dussinger and John Tavener, 9th International Temperature Symposium, Anaheim, CA, March 2012

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High Heat Flux, High Power, Low Resistance, Low CTE Two-Phase Thermal Ground Planes for Direct Die Attach Applications

Peter Dussinger, et al., GOMACTech 2012, Las Vegas, NV, March 2012

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Passive Control of a Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Lunar Lander Application

K. L. Walker et al., 42nd International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES 2012), San Diego, CA, July 15-19, 2012.

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A Computational Model of a Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger in a Vapor Compression System with a Large Pulsed Heat Load

G. Troszak and X. Tang, Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Puerto Rico, July 8-12, 2012.

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2-D Simulation of Hot Electron-Phonon Interactions in a Submicron Gallium Nitride Device Using Hydrodynamic Transport Approach

Angie Fan et al., ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Puerto Rico, USA , July 8-12, 2012

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Novel Junction Level Cooling in Pulsed GaN Devices

Tapan G. Desai, et al., ITherm, San Diego, CA, May 30, 2012,

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Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Life Tests

W. G. Anderson, et al., 16th International Heat Pipe Conference, Lyon, France, May 20-24, 2012.

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Passivation Coatings for Micro-channel Coolers

Richard W. Bonner III, Jens Weyant, Evan Fleming, Kevin Lu, Daniel Reist, APEC 2012, Orlando FL, February 1, 2012

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Regolith Oxygen Production with Multiple Reactors

John Hartenstine, et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2011

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Thermal Management System for Long-Lived Venus Landers

Calin Tarau, et al., 9th Intersociety Energy and Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, July 31 - August 3, 2011

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes

William Anderson, et al., 41st International Conference on Environmental Systems, Portland, OR, July 17-21, 2011

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for a Lunar Variable Thermal Link

Chris Peters, et al., 41st International Conference on Environmental Systems, Portland, OR, July 17-21, 2011

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Two-Phase Heat Sinks with Microporous Coating

T. Semenic and S. M. You, 9th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, Edmonton, CA, June 19-22, 2011

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Die Level Thermal Storage for Improved Cooling of Pulsed Devices

Richard Bonner III, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA., March 2011

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A 2-D Numerical Study of Microscale Phase Change Material Thermal Storage for GaN Transistor Thermal Management

Xudong Tang, et al., Semitherm, San Jose, CA, March 2011

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Dynamic Response of Phenolic Resin and Its Carbon-nanotube Composites to Shock Wave Loading

Arman, et. al., Journal of Applied Physics, 109, 013503 (2011)

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Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Variable Thermal Conductance Link of Lunar Landers and Rovers

Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Variable Thermal Conductance Link of Lunar Landers and Rovers, J. R. Hartenstine et al., 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, FL, January 4-7, 2011.

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Electronics Cooling Using High Temperature Loop Heat Pipes with Multiple Condensers

William G. Anderson, et al., SAE Power Systems Conference, Ft. Worth, TX, November 2010

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Development of Heat Pipe Loop Technology for Military Vehicle Electronics Cooling

Xudong Tang et al., NDIA Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering and Technology Symposium, Dearborn, Michigan, August 2010

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Dropwise Condensation Life Testing of Self Assembled Monolayers

Richard Bonner III, IHTC14, Washington, DC, August 2010

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Heat and Mass Transfer in a Permeable Fabric system Under Hot Air Jet Impingement,

Sangsoo Lee et. al., International Heat Transfer Conference (IHTC14), Washington, DC, August, 2010

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Variable Thermal Conductance Link for Lunar Landers and Rovers

William G Anderson et. al., IECEC, Nashville, Tennessee, July, 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems – Design and Experimental Results

Calin Tarau and William G Anderson, IECEC, Nashville, Tennessee, July, 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe with Carbon-Carbon Radiator for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau and William G. Anderson, 15th International Heat Pipe Conference, Clemson, SC, April 2010

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Low-Temperature, Dual Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith

Kara Walker et al., 15th International Heat Pipe Conference, Clemson, South Carolina, April, 2010

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes

William G. Anderson, John R. Hartenstine, David B. Sarraf, and Calin Tarau, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., Pennsylvania, 15th International Heat Pipe Conference (15th IHPC) Clemson, USA, April 25-30, 2010.

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Dropwise Condensation in Vapor Chambers

Richard Bonner, 26th IEEE Semi-Therm Symposium, Santa Clara, California, February 2010

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Sodium VCHP with Carbon-Carbon Radiator for Radioisotope Stirling Systems,

Calin Tarau, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Laurel, Maryland, February 2010

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Advanced VCS Evaporators for Lunar Lander and Lunar Habitat Thermal Control Applications

Tadej Semenic, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Laurel, Maryland, February 2010

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Modeling Initial Stage of Phenolic Pyrolysis: Graphitic Precursor Formation and Interfacial Effects

Tapan Desai, et al., Polymer, 52, 2010

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Slip Behavior at Ionic Solid-fluid Interfaces

Tapan Desai, NDIA Chemical Physics Letters, 501, 2010, 93-97

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Roles of Atomic Restructuring in Interfacial Phonon Transport

Seungha Shin et. al., Physical Review B, 82, 081302 (2010)

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Anisotropic Shock Response of Columnar Nanocrystalline Cu

Sheng-Nian Luo et. al., Journal of Applied Physics , 107, 123507 (2010)

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Heat Pipe Embedded Alsic Plates for High Conductivity-Low CTE Heat Spreaders

J. Weyant, ITHERM 2010, Las Vegas NV,

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith

John R. Hartenstine, et al., AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, January 2010

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Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., 7th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Denver Colorado, August 2009

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Loop Heat Pipe Design, Manufacturing and Testing – an Industrial Perspective

William Anderson, et al., ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Dropwise Condensation on Surfaces with Graded Hydrophobicity

Richard Bonner, ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Evaporators for High Temperature Lift Vapor Compression Loop for Space Applications

Tadej Semenic and Xudong Tang, ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference, San Francisco, California, July 2009

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiators for Lunar and Martian Environments

William Anderson, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production of Lunar Regolith

John Hartenstine, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Performance after Extended Periods of Freezing

Michael Ellis and William Anderson, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Loop Heat Pipe for TacSat-4

Peter Dussinger, et al., Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), Huntsville, Alabama, February 2009

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Advanced Thermal Management Technologies for High Power Automotive Equipment

Jon Zuo, et al., National Defense Industrial Association Ground Vehicle Power and Energy Workshop, Troy, Michigan, November 2008

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Vibration and Shock Tolerant Capillary Two-Phase Loop Technology for Vehicle Thermal Control

Xudong Tang and Chanwoo Park, 2008 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Jacksonville, Florida, August 2008

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NaK Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

Calin Tarau, et al., 6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, Ohio, July 2008

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Heat Pipe Cooling of Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems

William Anderson, et al., 6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Cleveland, Ohio, July 2008

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Startup Characteristics and Gravity Effects on a Medium/High-Lift Heat Pump Using Advanced Hybrid Loop Technology

Eric Sunada, et al., 38th SAE International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, California, June 2008

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High Temperature and High Heat Flux Thermal Management for Electronics

David Sarraf and William Anderson, IMAPS International Conference on High Temperature Electronics Conference (HiTEC 2008), Albuquerque, New Mexico, May 2008

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Heat Pipe Cooling of Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

William Anderson, et al., 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, San Diego, California, May 2008

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Local Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements of Flat Angles Sprays Using Thermal Test Vehicle

Richard Bonner, et al., 24th IEEE Semi-Therm Symposium, San Jose, California, March 2008

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Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe for Precise Temperature Control

David Sarraf, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Power Systems

John Hartenstine, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

William Anderson and Calin Tarau, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Vapor Compression Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology for Lunar Surface Applications

Chanwoo Park and Eric Sunada, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008

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Experimental Study of Oscillating Flow Heat Transfer

Angie Fan, et al., Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer International Conference, Tainan, Taiwan, January 2008

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Metal Hydride Heat Storage Technology for Directed Energy Weapon Systems

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exhibition, Seattle, Washington, November 2007

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Electronics Thermal Management Using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2007 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Loop Thermosyphon Design for Cooling of Large Area, High Heat Flux Sources

John Hartenstine, et al., InterPACK 2007, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Heat Pipes for High Temperature Thermal Management

David Sarraf and William Anderson, InterPACK 2007, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes

William Anderson, 2007 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, St. Louis, MO, June 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests – Experiments

William Anderson, et al., 2007 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, St. Louis, MO, June 2007.

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Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests – Theory

Calin Tarau, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, NM, February 11 - 15, 2007.

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Spacecraft Thermal Management Using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, NM, February 11 - 15, 2007.

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Advanced Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for High Performance Thermal Management

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger with Two Levels of Isolation for Environmental Control of Manned Spacecraft Crew Compartment

David Sarraf, 37th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Norfolk, VA, July 17-20, 2006.

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Passive Thermal Management for a Fuel Cell Reforming Process

David Sarraf, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High Temperature Water-Titanium Heat Pipe Radiator

William Anderson, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High Temperature Titanium-Water and Monel-Water Heat Pipes

William Anderson, et al., 2006 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2006.

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High-Temperature Water Heat Pipes

David Sarraf and William Anderson, IMAPS International Conference on High Temperature Electronics, Santa Fe, NM, May 15 - 18, 2006

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High Performance Heat Storage and Dissipation Technology

Chanwoo Park, et al., 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE), Orlando, FL, November 5 - 11, 2005.

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Design and Testing of Titanium/Cesium and Titanium/Potassium Heat Pipes

Peter Dussinger, et al., 2005 International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Francisco, CA, August 2005.

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High Temperature Lightweight Heat Pipe Panel Technology Development

Ted Stern and William Anderson, Space Nuclear Conference 2005, San Diego, CA, June 2005.

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Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Trade Study for the 300-550K Temperature Range

William Anderson and Walter Bienert, Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2005

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Hybrid Loop Thermal Bus Technology for Vehicle Thermal Management

Chanwoo Park, et al., 24th Army Science Conference, Orlando, FL, November 29 - December 2, 2004

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