Custom Heat Pipes Assemblies are often used for cooling discrete components by moving heat off the chip or sensor to a remote heat sink. Copper/water heat pipes are made of copper typically operate in the temperature range of 20 to 150°C. They are cost-effective, their effective thermal conductivity ranges from 10,000 to 100,000 W/m-K, and the heat transfer is one-dimensional.
Heat Pipe Resources
HiK™ or high conductivity plates are heat spreaders with embedded heat pipes to transport heat as desired in your system. These plates are particularly useful for cooling multiple high-power components and managing the thermal load. The HiK™ plate collects and moves the heat from these discrete heat sources to the liquid-cooled edge or air-cooled heat sinks with minimal temperature gradients.
Vapor chamber heat spreaders are planar heat pipes that spread heat from concentrated heat source(s) to a large-area heat sink with effective thermal conductivities greatly exceeding those of copper. Vapor Chambers require complex manufacturing techniques, so are generally recommended for high heat flux applications, or when genuine two-dimensional spreading is required.
A Loop Thermosyphon (LTS) is an ideal solution for any system that can leverage gravity assist fluid return. They are ideal for high-power density electronics that require a remotely located condenser or heat sink that can be placed above the components. A Loop Thermosyphon can move larger amounts of heat compared to a similar-sized heat pipe or thermosyphon because there is no counter-flow.
High-temperature heat pipes are typically defined as heat pipes that operate between 400°C and 1100°C. Three working fluids are typically used to cover this range; Cesium, Potassium, and Sodium. High-temperature heat pipes can be used to build custom heat transfer devices for both high power throughput (in the 1 to 100 kW range) and precise temperature uniformity.
A variety of heat pipe products are used at the board, box, and system level for spacecraft thermal control. Aluminum-Amonnia CCHPs have decades of heritage transporting heat from the box to radiator panels, and ACT has dozens of already qualified wick structures. ACT is the only provider of Copper-Water heat pipes to the Satellite industry and boasts a variety of other technologies like Loop Heat Pipes and Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for either precise temperature control, or when higher powers and adverse elevations are required.