U.S. 9,212,327 - System and Process of Producing Fuel with a Methane Thermochemical Cycle

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A thermochemical process and system for producing fuel are provided. The thermochemical process includes reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon to form an alkane and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. Another thermochemical process includes reducing a metal oxide to form a reduced metal oxide, reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon with the reduced metal oxide to form an alkane, and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. The system includes a reformer configured to perform a thermochemical process.

U.S. 9,204,574 - Vapor Chamber Structure

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A vapor chamber structure which locks the upper planar plate lid to the lower planar plate base without the need for brazing and prevents distortion of the surfaces from internal pressure in the chamber. The basic structure has parallel rows of latching structures on the interior surfaces of the upper planar plate lid and the lower planar plate base. Each row of latching structures has a cross section in the shape the letter “L” with the top of the “L” attached to the interior surface of the lid so that the horizontal sections of the “L”s face the lower planar base plate when the chamber is assembled.

U.S. 8,210,506 - Direct Contact Vortex Flow Heat Exchanger

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US 8,210,506

The invention is a heat exchanger that transfers heat directly between fluids which are in direct contact with each other rather than being separated by a heat conductive wall. Gas and liquid exchange heat when the gas is moved into and through a mixing chamber, and is directed to form a high speed, forced vortex gas flow. The liquid is sprayed into the mixing chamber to form droplets traveling with and mixing with the vortex gas flow. As the gas and liquid droplets move through the mixing chamber together in the vortex flow, they exchange thermal energy by direct contact. The mixing chamber length is designed so that the gas and the liquid droplets approach thermal equilibrium as the gas-liquid mixture moves into a separation chamber. Within the separation chamber, the centrifugal force of the continuing vortex movement of the gas stream seaparates the liquid from the gas stream and forms a layer of liquid on the separation chamber wall. The liquid then moves down along the wall to a liquid outlet, while a baffle plate restricts the interaction of the gas stream vortex with the liquid approaching the outlet.

U.S. 8,002,021 - Heat Exchanger with Internal Heat Pipe

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US 8,002,021 B1

The invention is a heat exchanger transferring heat from a small heat source to a moving fluid. The inherent limitation of such a system is that most of the heat transfer to the fluid occurs only in the immediate vicinity of the heat input even though a large surface area heat transfer structure such as fins or small fluid passages is used to enhance the heat transfer within the heat exchanger. The invention adds a heat pipe inside the heat exchanger enclosure and in contact with the heat transfer structure. The heat pipe spreads the incoming heat over a larger part of the surface area of the heat transfer structure and improves the heat transfer to the cooling fluid by furnishing multiple heat transfer locations without adding extra thermal resistance between the heat source and the fluid flow.

U.S. 7,748,436 - Evaporator for Capillary Loop

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US 7,748,436

The apparatus is a capillary loop evaporator in which the vapor space is the internal volume of a cup shaped evaporator wick with sidewalls in full contact with the outer casing of the evaporator. Liquid is furnished to the wick through thicker wick wall sections, slabs protruding from the liquid-vapor barrier wick, eccentric wick cross sections, or tunnel arteries. The tunnel arteries can also be formed within heat flow reducing ridges protruding in the vapor space. The tunnel arteries, and can be isolated from the heat source with regions of finer wick to impede vapor flow into the liquid. Tunnel arteries also enable separation of the evaporator and the reservoir for thermal isolation and structural flexibility. A wick within the reservoir aids collection of liquid in low gravity applications.

U.S. 6,990,816 - Hybrid Capillary Cooling Apparatus

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US 6,990,816

The apparatus is a hybrid cooler which includes one loop within which a heated evaporator forms vapor that moves to a condenser because of the vapor pressure which also drives the liquid condensate from the condenser to a liquid reservoir. A second loop is powered by a mechanical pump that supplies liquid from the reservoir to the evaporator and the second loop also returns excess liquid not vaporized to the reservoir. An optional reservoir cooler can be used to assure that the reservoir temperature and vapor pressure are always lower than the temperatures and pressures of the evaporator and condenser.

U.S. 6,948,556 - Hybrid Loop Cooling of High Powered Devices

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US 6,948,556

A heat transfer loop system includes a primary passive two-phase flow segment with an evaporator, a condenser and a liquid reservoir, and a secondary actively pumped liquid flow segment in which the liquid in the reservoir is drawn by a liquid pump into the evaporator, where a portion of the liquid is vaporized by the heat input and moves into the primary segment while the excess liquid is pumped back to the reservoir. The evaporator consists of a porous wick and one or more liquid arteries encased in the porous wick. The liquid arteries have porous walls to allow liquid phase working fluid to flow into the surrounding porous wick. The liquid arteries have porous walls to allow liquid phase working fluid to flow into the surrounding porous wick. The excess liquid continues to move through the arteries and eventually out of the evaporator and into the reservoir. The porous wick provides sufficient capillary force to separate the liquid inside the arteries and the vapor in the evaporator.